chapter1-kh PP

Chapter1-kh PP - What is Organic Chemistry Living things are made of organic chemicals Proteins that make up hair muscles DNA controls genetic

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5/31/2011 1 1. Structure and Bonding Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 7 th edition (Modified by KEH, 2008) What is Organic Chemistry? ± Living things are made of organic chemicals ± Proteins that make up hair & muscles ± DNA - controls genetic make-up ± Foods medicines 2 Foods, medicines ± Example structures below Origins of Organic Chemistry Foundations of organic chemistry from mid-1700’s. Compounds obtained from plants, animals hard to isolate, and purify. 3 Compounds also decomposed more easily. Torben Bergman (1770) first to make distinction between organic and inorganic chemistry. • Organic chemistry is study of carbon compounds. • Why is carbon so special? - 99% of more than 30 million known chemical Current Definition of Organic Chemistry 4 compounds contain carbon! - Examination of carbon in periodic chart answers some of these questions. - Carbon is group 4A element, it can share 4 valence electrons and form 4 covalent bonds. - Carbon also can form strong bonds to more than a couple of other atoms of C
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5/31/2011 2 Structure and Bonding HO H H H cholesterol ± Understanding the chemistry and biology of organic molecules requires a knowledge of molecular structure (3-dimensional) – which requires a knowledge of bonding between the atoms in organic molecules. ± Chemists cannot directly observe bonds like an engineer can inspect trusses and beams! 5 Review ideas from general chemistry: atoms, bonds and bonding , molecular geometry Why this chapter? 6 You must have an excellent mastery of the concepts in this chapter to learn and understand organic chemistry!! Remember that facts are not concepts. Concepts are ‘generalizations’ about facts. The MOST IMPORTANT Question in Understanding Organic Chemistry Where are the electrons? ± Why electrons? ± Electrons are the source of bonding between atoms Bonding controls structure atoms. Bonding controls structure! ± Reactions (one structure being converted into another) involves breaking bonds and making new ones. We thus want to understand where do the electrons go (the new bonds) to be able to predict the new structure! 7 1.1 Review of Atomic Structure ± Structure of an atom ± Positively charged nucleus (very dense, protons and neutrons) and small (10 -15 m) ± Negatively charged electrons are in a cloud (10 -10 m) around nucleus Where are the electrons? 8 ± Diameter is about 2 × 10 -10 m (200 picometers (pm)) [the unit angstrom (Å) is 10 -10 m = 100 pm]
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5/31/2011 3 Atomic Number and Atomic Mass ± The atomic number ( Z ) is the number of protons in the atom's nucleus (equals # of electrons in neutral atom!) ± The mass number ( A ) is the number of protons plus neutrons 9 ± All the atoms of a given element have the same atomic number ± Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers ± The atomic mass ( atomic weight ) of an element is the weighted average mass in atomic mass units (amu) of an element’s naturally occurring isotopes 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals ± Quantum mechanics : describes electron energies
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2011 for the course CHEM 227 taught by Professor Santander during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Chapter1-kh PP - What is Organic Chemistry Living things are made of organic chemicals Proteins that make up hair muscles DNA controls genetic

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