ch 12 full - Ch 12 Personality: Theory, Research and...

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Ch 12 – Personality: Theory, Research and Assessment The Nature of Personality Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness What are the essential features of the concept of personality? consistency across situations o the stability in a person’s behaviour over time and across situations distinctiveness o the behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situations What does personality refer to? personality o refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behaviour Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions What are personality traits? a durable mood to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations How many personality traits are necessary to describe personality adequately? 16 The 5-factor Model of Personality Traits What is the Model? the idea that most personality traits are derived from 5 higher-order traits o 5 higher-order traits known as the “Big Five” What traits are included in the Big Five? extraversion o people who score high in extraversion tend to be outgoing sociable friendly assertive o referred to as positive emotionally neuroticism
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o people who score high in neuroticism tend to be anxious hostile self-conscious insecure vulnerable over reactive to stress openness to experience o associated with curiosity flexibility vivid fantasy imaginativeness artistic sensitivity unconventional attitudes agreeableness o people who score high in agreeableness tend to be sympathetic trusting cooperative modest straightforward o people who score low tend to be suspicious antagonistic aggressive o may be linked to childhood temperaments conscientiousness o conscientious people tend to be diligent disciplined well organized punctual dependable o referred to constraint in some models o associated with living longer Psychodynamic Perspectives
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What are psychodynamic theories? all the diverse theories from the work of Freud focuses on unconscious mental processes Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory What does the psychoanalytic theory attempt to explain? personality, motivation and psychological disorders by focusing on o the influence of early childhood experiences on unconscious motives and conflicts o methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges Structure of Personality How did Freud view the structure of personality? divided personality structure into 3 components o id primitive, instinctive component of personality pleasure principle demands immediate satisfaction operates according to the pleasure principle Freud referred to the id as the reservoir of psychic energy meant that the id houses raw biological urges that energize human behaviour id takes part in primary-process thinking primitive illogical irrational fantasy oriented o ego decision-making component of personality
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Brandon during the Spring '11 term at Queens Charlotte.

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ch 12 full - Ch 12 Personality: Theory, Research and...

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