chapter 3 full - CHAPTER THREE The Biological Basis of...

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CHAPTER THREE: The Biological Basis of Behaviour Nervous System - complex communication networks in which signals are constantly being transmitted, received and integrated behaviour depends on rapid information processing The 2 types of Nervous System Cells are… Glia - “glue”; provide structural support, nourishment and insulation for neurons involved in the removal of waste helps maintain the chemical environment of the neurons Neurons - the individual cells in the Nervous System that receive, integrate (put together) and transmit information basic links that permit communication Soma - or cell body; contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells used for handling information Dendrites - the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information (branch-like) Axon - a long, thin fibre that transmits signals away from the soma, to other neurons or to muscles or glands branch off to communicate with a number of other cells Myelin Sheath - an insulating material, derived from glial cells, that encases some axons serves to speed up the transmission of signals that move along axons Terminal Buttons - located at the axon end; small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters neurotransmitters - serve as messengers that may activate neighbouring neurons; chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another Synapses - a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another The General Pathway of Information … (visual on pg 79 – Fig.3.1) dendrites receive information information is passed to the soma along the axon transmitted to synapses of adjacent neurons neurotransmitters are released to activate neuron (triggered by terminal button) information is now in new neuron , and being passed to the dendrites (which are then connected to other axon new neuron) Neural Impulse - complex electrochemical reaction energy used to send information (pg 81– Fig.3.2) positively charged on the outside (K + ) negatively charged on the inside (Na - ) they do not cross the membrane at the same time creates overall charge
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neuron therefore, carries potential energy and acts as a tiny battery resting potential - of a neuron is its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive when the neuron is stimulated, channels in its cell membrane open (sodium gates open) Action Potential - is a very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge that travels along the axon created at the point when the neuron’s charge is less negative firing action channels in the cell membrane that opened to let in sodium close up Absolute Refractory Period - the minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin All-or-None Principle: neuron fires or it doesn’t action potential is all the same size weaker stimuli do not produce smaller action potentials the stronger the stimulus, will cause the cell to fire more rapidly (rate) THE SYNAPSE: where neurons meet 1. Sending Signals : Synaptic Cleft
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chapter 3 full - CHAPTER THREE The Biological Basis of...

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