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FINAL PSYCH NOTES - The Evolution of Psychology Bullying...

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09/24/07 The Evolution of Psychology Bullying Case Study In both cases of Reena’s and Dawn’s death, most of the bullies were young girls Cases showed that bullying could lead to physical harm Used to be thought that bullying was only among boys yet young girls also used violence to intimidate others From Speculation to Science: How Pyschology Developed o psyche : soul o logos : study of the subject o 2 words put together in 16 th century A New Science is Born: The Contributions of Wundt and Hall Psychology developed by people who studies philosophy and physiology William Wundt made psychology an actual science o 1879: psychology’s date of birth o Wundt seen as the founder of psychology psychology’s primary focus was consciousness – awareness of immediate experience G. Stanley Hall established America’s 1 st research lab o made America’s 1 st psychology journal The Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism Structuralism was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience (sensations, feelings, images) To examine contents of consciousness, structuralists depended on method of introspection o introspection: careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience Functionalism: based on belief that psychology should investigate the function/purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure Henry James: psychology should investigate the functions rather than the structure of consciousness o argued that structuralists’ approach missed the real nature of conscious experience o consciousness consist of a continuous flow of thoughts flow itself = “stream of consciousness”
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structuralists more concerned with lab functionalists more concerned with how people adapt their behaviour to demands of world around them o investigated: mental testing patterns of development in children effectiveness of educational practices behavioural differences b/w sexes Watson alters psychology’s course as behaiourism makes its debut John B. Watson: o Behaviouralism: a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour o wanted to only focus on behaviours that could be observed directly and ignore consciousness o Behaviour: refers to any observable response or activity by an organism o “behaviour is governed primarily by the environment” o behaviour approach referred to as stimulus-response psychology Pavlov: experiment showed that dogs could be trained to salivate to a tone Key points Structuralists: o led by Edward Titchener o believed psychology should use introspection to analyze consciousness into basic elements Functionalists: o Led by William James o believed psychology should focus on purpose and adaptive functions of consciousness
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FINAL PSYCH NOTES - The Evolution of Psychology Bullying...

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