CHAPTER 5 - CHAPTER 5: Variations in Consciousness...

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CHAPTER 5: Variations in Consciousness Consciousness - the awareness of internal and external stimuli; personal awareness Stream of consciousness - the idea that the contents of your consciousness are continually changing Sigmund Freud : believed in the unconscious, but examined what was beneath this stream… - conscious and unconscious processes are different levels of awareness - conscious is not an all-or-none phenomenon Electroencephalograph (EEG)- a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp - amplitude: height - frequency: cycles per second EEG patterns associated with states of consciousness - beta ( β ) : normal waking thought; alert problem solving - alpha ( α ) : deep relaxation; blank mind; meditation - theta ( θ ): light sleep - delta ( ): deep sleep Biological Rhythms - periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning Circadian Rhythms - the 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species - influences the cycle of sleep and wakefulness - when exposed to light, receptors send a signal to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC) located in the hypothalamus light retina SNC pineal gland (secretes melatonin) - Melatonin - a hormone that adjusts biological clocks - Circadian rhythms appear to be regulated by multiple internal clocks, with the central pacemaker located in the SNC Electromyograph (EMG) – records muscular activity and tension Electrooculograph (EOG) – records eye movement During sleep, people cycle through a series of FIVE STAGES: Stage 1 : Transitional stage of light sleep (theta waves) - hypnotic jerks - brief muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep Stage 2 : Sleep spindles appear: brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves Stages 3 and 4 : Slow wave sleep (SWS)- high amplitude, low frequency (delta waves prominent) Stage 5 : Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) – deep sleep of high frequency (beta waves) REM sleep - a relatively deep stage of sleep, marked by rapid eye movements, high frequency, low- amplitude and vivid dreaming
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Non-REM sleep (NREM) – consists of sleep stages 1 to 4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Brandon during the Spring '11 term at Queens Charlotte.

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CHAPTER 5 - CHAPTER 5: Variations in Consciousness...

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