CHAPTER 6 - CHAPTER 6 Learning Learning refers to a...

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CHAPTER 6: Learning Learning - refers to a relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience - one of the most fundamental aspects of psychology - acquisition of knowledge and skills - shapes personal habits and preferences, personality traits, emotional responses and much of our behaviour o Acquisition : the initial stage of learning something o Extinction : the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency o Stimulus Generalization : an organism’s responding to stimuli other than the original stimulus used in conditioning o Stimulus Discrimination : an organism’s response to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus used in conditioning Conditioning - learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment. There are three main types of conditioning , they are… 1. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING …a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus - stimuli precede the response Pavlovian Conditioning - established by Ivan Pavlov determine classical conditioning - used dogs in his experiment: o tone (CS or neutral stimulus ) was given at the presence of meat powder (UCS or stimulus ) detect salivation o would eventually salivate in the presence of the tone alone - this demonstrated learned associations, were formed by events in an organism’s environment Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) - a stimulus that evokes an unconditional response without previous conditioning - unconditioned response (UCR) - an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response - conditioned response (CR)- a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning Physic Reflex or Conditioned Reflex - most reflexes are relatively automatic or involuntary Trial - consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli - psychologists are concerned for how many trials are required to establish a particular conditioned bond Emotional Response: - conditioned fears can be traced back to experiences that involve classical conditioning - pleasant smell associations
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Physiological Response: - immune system lead to immuno-suppression (a decrease in the production of antibodies) - allergic reactions - drug tolerance (pre-drug cues elicit a CCR that attenuates the drug effect)
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