CHAPTER 7 - CHAPTER 7: Human Memory Semantic Memory- memory...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 7: Human Memory Semantic Memory- memory for general information Episodic Memory- memory for personal events 3 Key Processes involved in memory… 1. Encoding- forming a memory code 2. Storage- involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time 3. Retrieval- involves recovering information from memory ENCODING: getting information into memory Forgetting : can result in a failure to form a memory code Next-in-line effect- when participants are next in line to speak, they are too preoccupied rehearsing to pay attention to what is being said Attention- involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events- often linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness- where the filter is located… o early during sensory input o late after the brain has processed the meaning o intermediate selection location may be flexible rather then fixed- divided attention can have a negative impact on the performance of quite a variety of tasks Effortless Processing- you are picking up info because you are intentionally attempting to do so Automatic Processing- info picked up without your intending to do so Levels of Processing: Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart Shallow processing:- Structural encoding- emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus- Example: Is the word written in capital letters? Intermediate processing :- Phonemic encoding- emphasizes what a word sounds like- Example: Does the word rhyme with weight? Deep processing :- Semantic encoding- emphasizes the meaning of verbal input- Example: Would the word fit into the sentence “He met a … on the street?” Levels-of-Processing Theory : deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes - Depth time required for processing Elaboration- is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding - can be a way to enhance semantic encoding- consists of linking examples that illustrate an idea Imagery- the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered- it is easier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract concepts- imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code Dual-coding theory : holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall (Paivio) Self-referent encoding- involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant - depressed people have a more negative content as part of their self-prototype STORAGE : maintaining information in memory Information-processing theories : a metaphor; subdivided into 3 stores…(Atkinson and Shiffrin) …2 temporary storage buffers for incoming info (sensory and short-term) …1 long-term store The 3 memory stores are not viewed as anatomical structures in the brain, but rather as functionally distinct types of memory....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 07/17/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Brandon during the Spring '11 term at Queens Charlotte.

Page1 / 6

CHAPTER 7 - CHAPTER 7: Human Memory Semantic Memory- memory...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online