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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 7: Human Memory Semantic Memory- memory for general information Episodic Memory- memory for personal events 3 Key Processes involved in memory… 1. Encoding- forming a memory code 2. Storage- involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time 3. Retrieval- involves recovering information from memory ENCODING: getting information into memory Forgetting : can result in a failure to form a memory code Next-in-line effect- when participants are next in line to speak, they are too preoccupied rehearsing to pay attention to what is being said Attention- involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events- often linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness- where the filter is located… o early during sensory input o late after the brain has processed the meaning o intermediate selection location may be flexible rather then fixed- divided attention can have a negative impact on the performance of quite a variety of tasks Effortless Processing- you are picking up info because you are intentionally attempting to do so Automatic Processing- info picked up without your intending to do so Levels of Processing: Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart Shallow processing:- Structural encoding- emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus- Example: Is the word written in capital letters? Intermediate processing :- Phonemic encoding- emphasizes what a word sounds like- Example: Does the word rhyme with weight? Deep processing :- Semantic encoding- emphasizes the meaning of verbal input- Example: Would the word fit into the sentence “He met a … on the street?” Levels-of-Processing Theory : deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes - Depth time required for processing Elaboration- is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding - can be a way to enhance semantic encoding- consists of linking examples that illustrate an idea Imagery- the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered- it is easier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract concepts- imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code Dual-coding theory : holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall (Paivio) Self-referent encoding- involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant - depressed people have a more negative content as part of their self-prototype STORAGE : maintaining information in memory Information-processing theories : a metaphor; subdivided into 3 stores…(Atkinson and Shiffrin) …2 temporary storage buffers for incoming info (sensory and short-term) …1 long-term store The 3 memory stores are not viewed as anatomical structures in the brain, but rather as functionally distinct types of memory....
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Brandon during the Spring '11 term at Queens Charlotte.
- Spring '11