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CHAPTER 7 - CHAPTER 7 Human Memory Semantic Memory memory...

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CHAPTER 7: Human Memory Semantic Memory - memory for general information Episodic Memory - memory for personal events 3 Key Processes involved in memory… 1. Encoding - forming a memory code 2. Storage - involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time 3. Retrieval - involves recovering information from memory ENCODING: getting information into memory Forgetting : can result in a failure to form a memory code Next-in-line effect - when participants are next in line to speak, they are too preoccupied rehearsing to pay attention to what is being said Attention - involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events - often linked to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awareness - where the filter is located… o early during sensory input o late after the brain has processed the meaning o intermediate selection location may be flexible rather then fixed - divided attention can have a negative impact on the performance of quite a variety of tasks Effortless Processing - you are picking up info because you are intentionally attempting to do so Automatic Processing - info picked up without your intending to do so Levels of Processing: Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart Shallow processing: - Structural encoding - emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus - Example: Is the word written in capital letters? Intermediate processing : - Phonemic encoding - emphasizes what a word sounds like - Example: Does the word rhyme with weight? Deep processing : - Semantic encoding - emphasizes the meaning of verbal input - Example: Would the word fit into the sentence “He met a … on the street?” Levels-of-Processing Theory : deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes - Depth time required for processing Elaboration - is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding - can be a way to enhance semantic encoding - consists of linking examples that illustrate an idea
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Imagery - the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered - it is easier to form images of concrete objects than of abstract concepts - imagery facilitates memory because it provides a second kind of memory code Dual-coding theory : holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall (Paivio) Self-referent encoding - involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant - depressed people have a more negative content as part of their self-prototype STORAGE : maintaining information in memory Information-processing theories : a metaphor; subdivided into 3 stores…(Atkinson and Shiffrin) …2 temporary storage buffers for incoming info (sensory and short-term) …1 long-term store The 3 memory stores are not viewed as anatomical structures in the brain, but rather as functionally distinct types of memory.
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