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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing Psychological Test- is a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour- used to measure the individual differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality- accurate population sample is a limitation of these tests 2 Types of Psychological Tests… 1. Mental Ability Tests: include three principal categories…- Intelligence Tests- measure general mental ability; intended to assess intellectual potential- Attitude Tests- assess specific types of mental abilities; measure potential more than knowledge - Achievement Tests- gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects; measure previous learning instead of potential 2. Personality Tests : measure various aspects of personality (motives, interests, values, attitudes) - traits that can be assessed, and have right and wrong answers Standardization- refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test …includes the development of test norms.- Test norms- provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test- tell you how you score, relative to other people- Percentile score- indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained raw score % percentile score Reliability- refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or other kinds of measurement techniques) Consistency + accuracy Test-retest reliability : subjects to take the test on two occasions; changes = inconsistency Correlation coefficient : is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables- positive = similar scores- the magnitude of the correlation gives us a precise indication of the test’s consistency the closer the number comes to + 1.00 the more reliable the higher, the more consistent Validity- refers to the ability of a test to measure that it was designed to measure; the accuracy or usefulness of the inferences or decisions based on a test Content Validity- refers to the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it’s supposed to cover Criterion-related validity- is estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test Construct validity- the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct - examines the correlation between the test and various measures related to the trait in question- the overall pattern of correlations provide convincing evidence of a test’s construct validity History of Psychological Tests… Francis Galton :- studied family trees and found that success and eminence appeared consistently in some families over generations- intelligence is governed by heredity- “nature-versus-nurture” refer to the heredity-environment issue- invented the concepts of correlation and percentile scores...
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Brandon during the Spring '11 term at Queens Charlotte.
- Spring '11