CHAPTER 9 - CHAPTER 9 Intelligence and Psychological...

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CHAPTER 9: Intelligence and Psychological Testing Psychological Test - is a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour - used to measure the individual differences that exist among people in abilities, aptitudes, interests and aspects of personality - accurate population sample is a limitation of these tests 2 Types of Psychological Tests… 1. Mental Ability Tests: include three principal categories… - Intelligence Tests - measure general mental ability; intended to assess intellectual potential - Attitude Tests - assess specific types of mental abilities; measure potential more than knowledge - Achievement Tests - gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects; measure previous learning instead of potential 2. Personality Tests : measure various aspects of personality (motives, interests, values, attitudes) - traits that can be assessed, and have right and wrong answers Standardization- refers to the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test …includes the development of test norms. - Test norms - provide information about where a score on a psychological test ranks in relation to other scores on that test - tell you how you score, relative to other people - Percentile score - indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained raw score % percentile score Reliability - refers to the measurement consistency of a test (or other kinds of measurement techniques) Consistency + accuracy Test-retest reliability : subjects to take the test on two occasions; changes = inconsistency Correlation coefficient : is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables - positive = similar scores - the magnitude of the correlation gives us a precise indication of the test’s consistency the closer the number comes to + 1.00 the more reliable the higher, the more consistent Validity - refers to the ability of a test to measure that it was designed to measure; the accuracy or usefulness of the inferences or decisions based on a test Content Validity - refers to the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it’s supposed to cover Criterion-related validity - is estimated by correlating subjects’ scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test Construct validity - the extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct - examines the correlation between the test and various measures related to the trait in question - the overall pattern of correlations provide convincing evidence of a test’s construct validity
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History of Psychological Tests… Francis Galton : - studied family trees and found that success and eminence appeared consistently in some families over generations - intelligence is governed by heredity - “nature-versus-nurture” refer to the heredity-environment issue - invented the concepts of correlation and percentile scores
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  • Spring '11
  • brandon
  • Intelligence quotient, IQ scores, IQ tests, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Intelligence and Psychological Testing

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