CHAPTER 10 - CHAPTER 10 Motivation and Emotion Motivation...

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CHAPTER 10: Motivation and Emotion Motivation - relates to the study of the processes involved in goal-directed behaviour specific emotions - motives- are the needs, wants, interests, and the desires that propel people in certain directions The Theoretical Approaches to Motivation… Drive Theories : Walter Cannon - Homeostasis - a state of physiological equilibrium or stability o The body reacts to many disturbances in physiological stability by trying to restore equilibrium - Drive - an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension o Disruptions in the preferred equilibrium - Example) The hunger motive: this internal tension/drive (hunger) motivates you to obtain food Incentive Theories: - propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states - Incentive - is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behaviour - Push-versus-pull theories o Internal stimuli PUSH people in certain directions o External stimuli PULL people in certain directions - Incentive theories emphasize environmental factors and downplay the biological basis of human motivation - Expectancy-Value Model o Expectancy- about ones chances of attaining the incentive o Value- the desired incentive Evolutionary Theories : - human motives and those of other species are the products of evolution - natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive success passing genes to the next generation - motives can be best understood in terms of the adaptive problems they have solved for our hunter- gatherer ancestors THE MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING Hunger - is deceptive; it is a complex motivational system Cannon Washburn : There is an association between stomach contractions and the experiences of hunger - stomach contractions accompany hunger - This realization led to more elaborate theories of hunger that focus on… I. Brain Regulation - hypothalamus- is a tiny structure involved in the regulation of biological needs related to survival o lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus are the brains “on-off” switches for the control of hunger - regulate eating by monitoring a diverse array of physiological processes
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II. Glucose and Digestive Regulation - Glucose - a simple sugar that is an important source of energy - Glucostatic Theory : proposed that fluctuations in blood glucose level are monitored in the brain by the glucostats - Glucostats - neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid III. Hormonal Regulation - Insulin - a hormone secreted by the pancreas; it must be present for cells to extract glucose from the blood - Leptin - produced by fat cells throughout the body and released into blood provides the hypothalamus with info about the body’s fat stores Environmental Factors : 3 Key Environmental factors are… 1. Food availability and related cues - Often motivated to eat NOT by the need to compensate for energy deficit, but by the anticipated pleasure of eating - Environmental cues associated with hunger can cause hunger
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CHAPTER 10 - CHAPTER 10 Motivation and Emotion Motivation...

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