CHAPTER 12 - CHAPTER TWELVE: Personality: Theory, Research...

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CHAPTER TWELVE: Personality: Theory, Research and Assessment Personality - refers to an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioural traits - consistent tendencies across situations core - distinctiveness explains why not everyone acts the same way in similar situations o our own distinctive set of personality traits Personality Trait - a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations Factor Analysis- correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables - used to identify hidden factors behind numerous personality traits - very basic, high order traits that determine less basic, more specific traits Raymond Cattell (1937) – concluded that an individual’s personality can be describes completely by measuring just 16 traits Five Factor Model of Personality: - established by Robert McCrae and Paul Costa - personality traits are derived from just five higher-order traits - personality can be described adequately, by measuring these 5 traits… “latitude and longitude” 1. Extraversion (positive emotionally ) - outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly 2. Neuroticism ( negative emotionally) - tend to overreact more in response to stress than others 3. Openness to Experience - key determinant on people’s political attitudes and ideology 4. Agreeableness - sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest 5. Conscientiousness (constraint) - disciplined, well-organized, dependable, punctual Four Personality Theories 1. PSYCHODYNAMIC: …include all the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud , which focus on unconscious mental forces Sigmund Freud… - devoted himself to the treatment of mental disorders using innovative procedure he had developed, called psychoanalysis - Psychoanalytic theory - attempts to explain personality, motivation and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of… o early childhood experiences o unconscious motives and conflicts o methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges
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- The three main areas of criticism with Freud were… 1. Individuals are not masters of their own minds 2. People are not masters of their own destiny 3. Emphasized the great importance of how people cope with their sexual urges Structure of Personality : a person’s behaviour is the outcome of the interactions between these three components: Id - the primitive, instinctive component that operates according to the pleasure principle - pleasure principle - demands immediate gratification of its urges - houses the raw biological urges that energize human behaviour (eat, sleep) - primary process of thinking Ego - the decision-making component that operates according to reality - reality principle- seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found - secondary process of thinking - behaving properly Superego - the moral component that incorporates social standards about what represents right and
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This note was uploaded on 07/17/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Brandon during the Spring '11 term at Queens Charlotte.

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CHAPTER 12 - CHAPTER TWELVE: Personality: Theory, Research...

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