CHAPTER 14 - CHAPTER 14 Psychological Disorders Medical...

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CHAPTER 14: Psychological Disorders Medical Model : proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behaviour as a disease 18 th and 19 th century - before this, it was believed that abnormal behaviour was based on superstition - the medical model allowed victims to be viewed with more sympathy and less hatred and fear - Recently… Thomas Szasz o Argued that abnormal behaviour usually involves a deviation form social norms rather than an illness Medical concepts proven valuable in the treatment and study of abnormality: - Diagnosis - distinguishing one illness from another - Etiology - the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness - Prognosis - the forecast about the probable course of an illness Criteria of Abnormal Behaviour : Diagnosis of psychological disorders involve judgment about what represents normal or abnormal behaviour - However, judgments about mental illness reflect prevailing cultural, social and political trends - People can be divided into 2 distinct groups: those who are normal and those who are not - Normality and abnormality exist on a continuum Deviance : behaviour deviates from what their society considers acceptable - normality varies - when people violate cultural norms, they may be labeled mentally ill Maladaptive Behaviour: everyday adaptive behaviour is impaired - key criterion for diagnosis of drug/substance use disorders Personal Distress: individuals report of great personal distress - criterion met for depression or anxiety disorders Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders : - they are incurable - people with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous - people with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders 1952 : The American Psychiatric Association unveiled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) - 100 disorders described 1968 : DSM II was published, but diagnostic guidelines were still pretty sketchy 1980 : DSM III represented a major advance - introduced a new multi-axial system of classification - diagnosis material was made more explicit, concrete and detailed 1994 (Current): DSM IV used intervening research to refine the criteria used previously
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Multi-axial Evaluation : recognizes the importance of information - Axes : dimensions used to separate judgments of individuals. There are 5 axes… Axis I : (Clinical Syndromes) Diagnosis; clinicians record most types of disorders Axis II: ( Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation ) Diagnosis; used to list long-running personality disorders (The following are used to record supplemental information ) Axis III: (General Medical Conditions ) physical disorders are listed Axis IV : ( Psychological Environmental Problems ) clinician makes notations regarding the types of stress experiences by the individual in the past year Axis V : ( Global Assessment of Functioning ) estimates are made of the individual’s current level of adaptive
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CHAPTER 14 - CHAPTER 14 Psychological Disorders Medical...

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