CHAPTER 15 - CHAPTER 15 Treatment of Psychological...

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CHAPTER 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders Psychotherapy - refers to all the diverse approaches used in the treatment of mental disorders and psychological problems - professional treatment by someone with special training History Breuer : speculated that talking things through, enables a person to drain off bottled-up emotions that cause symptoms of mental illness Freud : applied this insight to other patients, and his success led to the process of psychoanalysis Psychotherapists use many treatment methods, of which can be classified into 3 major categories… 1. Insight Therapies : engage in complex verbal interactions 2. Behaviour Therapies : direct efforts to alter problematic responses and maladaptive behaviour 3. Biomedical Therapies : interventions into a person’s biological functioning The therapeutic triad = therapists + treatments + clients (The greatest diversity of all is seen among the clients) 2 types of Psychologists that may provide therapy… 1. Clinical psychologist - training emphasizes the treatment of full-fledged disorders 2. Counselling psychologists - training is slanted toward the treatment of everyday adjustment problems Psychologists - use either insight or behavioural approaches Psychiatrists - physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders - more likely to use behavioural techniques and less likely to use psychoanalytic methods - devote more time to relatively severe disorders INSIGHT THERAPIES …involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients’ self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behaviour Psychoanalysis - an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference - Freud believed that neurotic problems are caused by unconscious conflicts left over from early childhood - Inner conflicts = battles between the id, ego and superego - Theorized that people use defense mechanisms to avoid confronting these conflicts The therapeutic procedures used in psychoanalysis… Free association - clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible - these associations are studied for cues about what is going on in the client’s unconscious Dream Analysis - the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client’s dreams; “the royal road to the unconscious” – Freud (Freud’s view of the roots of disorders) Intrapsychic conflict (id, ego, superego) Anxiety Reliance of defense mechanisms
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Interpretation - refers to the therapist’s attempt to explain the inner significance of the client’s thoughts, feelings, memories and behaviours Resistance - refers to largely unconscious defensive maneuvers intended to hinder the progress of therapy - clients don’t want to face up the painful, disturbing conflicts that they have buried in their unconscious - reluctant to consult their real problems
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CHAPTER 15 - CHAPTER 15 Treatment of Psychological...

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