Opamp Application and Problems

Opamp Application and Problems - O P fig!“...

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E” UN‘H Dtmim 1... amid— ipqm L U A Lu. 1;. "’° 1 Scam ‘3‘ c: also! i D.l1‘5*3 Limp“ Cams: 2 0.15::3 3 51521-2 3} F—ufi. RECm€;'iPt1:'hL‘-4~ a"-h~u'~'w'-*~ 51%. 2/25/69 @J EARN 51 vol—met, '-.«"'-'. 51W: E, 5:11?" - .., cam cmuflflLwW-L l t-J FLU - _ m- V m- I: CDCDDD ‘3 3 meat Fm; D-EVW'V a c:- n :1— 3. new E 035v "" LFZL may; ,. a: 1.125 R? m *n-ua may J C" Unfit: .-- l.o£-.:=F..AL m” mgr; ‘3; HELP; - LUh‘LLflL“ 1|-“ 1; a 1.1:, Wad} "1- true. Wham-L; humane. amuaL. E'MJH LOT '5‘ A :Lurwm'y'LiTJ i’flifl‘t l5?” ‘ THE AHALDE "VD "Bibi-'th \ Loumrrzfiofl. ./ OP AMP A w {Markham 2/15/Q9 EFCI- @ i ii I2127—omt 4234+ ii EKG M57315: UT’iLJEE' We: snap;ng VET-D INTO ‘me mt‘urs m: A D-EFFERJ-fimfiLF .1 A LiF’l‘W-r. IMP #- Ra- Vom‘ :: E}; (VZ_V1> DtFmeAL. Ammmm maven LooP GANG NOTE: bet-ta: L495“ Flas'r swampm WHE“ Eaumwom FDR— 'n—Hs C..\fl-C.M\T—) we" USED Faun. DIFFEVLWT \fi‘Stfimfifi, (2:..Qa,llz,_, 9%. , "WE (Lemur: mew" ewek'rw SIMPLIFIED Haw-aw 90E MADE" Remain; Mum Wamukw‘flm'} j! As seam no T'HE' AWE Dims-0:945. “‘9': We?" {242mb OF- fln; Wffllfi'i'Df5-- F’mh’fi , 22/ {31 DE'TEWWIDE THE AMPMFIMT‘W OF: T“? 'i 1 Ems Electrocardiogram (EKG) Amplifier _ -, l 5 This example illustrates the principle behind a two-load electrocardlo- gram (EKG) measurement. The desired cardiac waveform is given by the difference between the potentials measured by two electrodes suitably [Contiflwd] placodon the patiem's chest, as shown in Figure 8.1]. A healthy, noise-free EKG wave. form ‘01 — L"; is shown in Figure 3.12. ‘ l d 1 7 -. __ Lea“ " + 5 Waiver: El-«Cza v! 5 L - :3“ f—wmoe armor ' T 2 I :— l pm 1 0 AV vs '1'th —1 I -2 |__._.___' | 0 I12 I14 0.5 0.3 ' Time, s Figure 3.12 EKG waveform A Electrodes A Figure 8.1 1 Two-lend electrocardiogram Unfortunately, Hie presence of electrical equipment powered by tho fill-Hz. IID-V _ AC line current causes undesired interference at the elechode leads: the lead wires act. as sarcoma and pick up some of flit: fill-Hr. signal in addition to the EKG voltage. In effect. instead ofrecording the desired EKG signals U1 and 132. the two electodes provide ' tllcfollowing inputs to the EKG amplifier, shown in Figure 8.13: ' M01236 AW AC- wn—m‘r— Cari/r-an mills-3"" i’eocuces Ala ELE‘LTDm/Ikwfiit. c0306“ RADMTE'D FROM THE“ come? Cunt-11w ACTS A3 AD ANTENNA manor: Micro mtwirml mammal)! 1g THE Lower ECG wither; ALT As AM ANTENVMA :. “THICK CAR. imam AL?"I‘E1.>IQ.‘M THlS A; Stella-u. Amt-"ms mullet) mom await, wHa+EC¢M_ lLJ WE- LET‘wD) ALol-‘Jb £17m” were: Elan: SIGNAL. NEH-3 “LDC-$34. I EKG: -CCJ!O- 1 lead 1: mg) + v.10}: mm + V" «M377: + rt.) Vail) p v — — — — — — — - ' " — 1 Lead 2 v2 Equivalent R: ' circuit for '2 .' lead. '2 : Lead 1 I + k V0“! ME— PM i R . - vain . 2 I i __________ _ _ _'l - Equwnienr “I circuit for EKG amPlificr lead I Flgura 8.13 EKG amplifier Lead 2: ram + mt) = v20) + V» cosOTJ'r + tan) The interference signal Tr',I 00581"?! +¢'H) is approximately the smear both 1cads.bccause the electrodes are chosen to be idenlical (e_g., they have the same lend. lengths) and are in close proximity to each other. Further. the nature of the interference signal is such that Irr____:... n it is cmmnon to both leads, since it is a property of the environment in which the EKG instmmem is embedded. 0n the basis of the analysis presenied earlier, then. m. = —’{h:. + vxm] - Iv; + mm DI Thus. the differential amplifier nullifics the effect of the 60-11.: interference. while am- plifying the desired EKG waveform. .1 Differential amplifier closed—loop gain 2 /25/o9 (9 W CmL577t+¢$Q Is THE” qummfi 60m.- mama, to: NH? r 3?“) MOISEL . $0 “ecu Ampup‘r THE (M) r V2 -V:; (DLFF-EDEIOTJAL. 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F22- 30 \{9 OJ: QF-QSVref— S: Ana/{L cat-7 Amp Suzie/itka 2/2 5/0? 10 5.1: SUMMARY 1. The op amp is a high-gain amplifier that has high input resistance and low output resistance. 2. Table 5.3 summarizes the op amp circuits considered in this chapter. The expression for the gain of each amplifier circuit holds whether the inputs are dc, ac, or time—varying in general. TABLE 5.] Sur‘mnrtrj,r of basic op amp circuits. 0p amp circuit Namer'uutpul-input relationship R2 Inverting amplifier R: g t". = — — U. at,- HfiplfirE. 9 R1 R; Noninverting amplifier R1 “(We)”: EGUATlOM Meme 3W" T - mart. op amp assume. v.- ”b D I 1. Vtute‘lmz. R: R: Rf vg:-—(}TU:+R—ZU2+R—3U3) Be- AgLe- T12) ”“ a EKG-,1 R2 neck—l T v” . Loews. APPLICMTDN v R! Difference amplifier P ‘ - one. R1 R: R2 l*2 o—N’WN——'WW1 3. An ideal op amp has an infinite input resistance, a zero output resistance, and an infinite gain. 4. For an idea! op amp, the current into each of its two input terminals is zero, and the voltage across its input terminals is negligibly small. 5. in an inverting amplifier, the output voltage is a negative multiple of the input. ii. In a noninvettirtg amplifier, the output is a positive multiple of the inpul. 7. in a voltage follower, the output follows the input. 8. In a summing amplifier, the output is the weighted sum of the inputs. ‘ ( __- mom ALB’XAMDt’N TE“ ii ______ ._ {L‘f '=‘;_i..{'__. I 2/ gig-.9100 Open awoguf' Duii'nfga. J \Jo “D THIS *5 AD :ouemmép Oi? AMP 3‘ V0 :-—E_E_\J.M Y-L-"L an. van:- \JQ '— -- ZSKQ/ 3"" 0,5: /lot:.q_ ca Flux) Cum-{LEN}? THROUbH {DP-:41" BE”5L§IDf?_.. FWD Vow!“ —-' SHOGE‘ k{cm hum) KQL,usE WT 9/25/09 a LOHAT IS, ‘THE CAJ. (3(3...{-_4,1..)'1" A) ~O.E’:%A a) —o.aSA Awe- Am mEAL <3? 21%?) a) DA HAS 0 mew emit-Mk5?“ D) c:- ZSA Lg") a Loam" 15 “me on;qu warm?) Vo ? a) 4,0 AME. “nu-2:, as A gum/mm: Q " ZLU M‘-x‘-u?‘-‘?{&.'f’:«—, Amt: THE; c.‘u'T'Pu7§"' 9‘) ex} v5 weary-Kat}. a Is: muv‘om. Voui‘i- 3; 1 +§ 5 :1 —- 7V CEO (4c 3 8c) Ah:on new.” If: = W. +92. : 2.1.; :1 O~8754 (9-1. 2. 4 8 Va: nI\=Rr: -: 40.37%?) :— -7\/ ...
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Opamp Application and Problems - O P fig!“...

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