# note1 - Handout 1 Circuit Theory Review What you will...

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Handout 1 ECE 315, Cornell University 1 Circuit Theory Review What you will learn: • Small and large signals in time and frequency domains • Thevenin and Norton network theories • Source absorption and splitting techniques Handout 1

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Handout 1 ECE 315, Cornell University 2 1.1. Signals and Block Diagrams • Know what is the signal representation in large-signal/small- signal, and time/frequency. • Amplification and impedance matching in simple but nonideal amplifiers. • Four types of amplifiers, and the definition of gain, input resistance, and output resistance. • How amplitude and phase change in single-time-constant networks (high-pass and low pass) Textbook: 1.1 – 1.6
Handout 1 ECE 315, Cornell University 3 • Electronics: signal/info represented by electromagnetic waves, often measured by v(t) or i(t). • Analog: signal represented by the floating-point value of v(t) or i(t). Noise adds on. • Digital: v(t) and i(t) assuming only two values as V DD /GND or I ON /I OFF . Error can occur but be rejected. • If you do not match R s well, you cannot sense v s (t). Analog signal Digital signal Analog and Digital Signals Fig. 1.2 Fig. 1.8

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Handout 1 ECE 315, Cornell University 4 Thevenin View Norton View Signal Sources: Voltage (Thevenin) and Current (Norton) Fig. 1.1 + R S v S i S
Handout 1 ECE 315, Cornell University 5 Miscommunication by “Impedance” or “Frequency”

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Handout 1 ECE 315, Cornell University 6 Signals in Time and Frequency Domains The sinusoidal wave is a single pulse in the power spectrum of frequency Periodic signals have discrete frequency components, with the lowest frequency ω 0 =2 π f=2 /T . Fig. 1.3 Fig. 1.4 Fig. 1.5
Handout 1 ECE 315, Cornell University 7 Arbitrary v(t) corresponds to a continuous function in v( ω ), denoted as the frequency spectrum (in V) or power spectrum of frequency (in W). If we sample the continuous time signal in an period of T sample , then the frequency spectrum with highest frequency of max =2 π /T sample can match all sampling points. T sample Fig. 1.7 Fig. 1.6 Low and High Bounds of Spectrum

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Handout 1 ECE 315, Cornell University 8 Further View for Signal Representation • Information can be represented by v(t) or i(t) with v and i values sampled at specific t . • The periodicity T and the sampling period T sample of a continuous time signal give the upper and lower bounds in the frequency domain. • Can information be represented in other ways? Yes, in UWB (ultra-wideband), we sample the time interval at a specific v or i . UWB coding: Time interval between down edge or say 2.5V. These intervals can be analog or digital. Fig. 1.8 Logic values in non-return-zero (NRZ) coding of level logic
Handout 1 ECE 315, Cornell University 9 • Signals being transmitted can have noise added, be amplified, or shaped in waveforms. • The actual

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## This note was uploaded on 02/02/2008 for the course ECE 3150 taught by Professor Spencer during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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note1 - Handout 1 Circuit Theory Review What you will...

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