Ex01_116 - Exercise 1 Safe Laboratory Practice Basic...

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E xercise 1 Safe Laboratory Practice Basic Laboratory Techniques Preparation of Aqueous Solutions Procedures for Obtaining and Presenting Data ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ Background 1.1 Safety Safety comes first in the laboratory. You must know not only how to use scientific equipment and perform laboratory procedures, but also how to do so safely. A set of protocols for a safe and healthy laboratory environment is mandatory for practicing scientists and is known as “good laboratory practices” (often written as the acronym GLP ). 1.2 The Methods of Science In science, precision and accuracy in obtaining and reporting information is essential. This information is collected as data that will then be analyzed and used to help us understand and explain the world around us. Data is obtained by direct observation or by experimentation. Observational data are obtained by watching but not altering the system we are studying. Experimental data are obtained by altering one variable in the system and recording the response of the system to that alteration. This type of data collection requires the use of a control to validate the experimental design. A control is the same as the experimental group in all aspects except the variable being tested. This factor, called the "independent variable, " is varied in the experimental group and held constant in the control group. The factor in the experimental group, which varies in response to alterations in the independent variable, is called the "dependent variable." Various instruments are often used to aid in the collection of both observational and experimental data. Introductory science textbooks often begin with a description of “the scientific method.” This concept is usually presented as a rigid set of rules to be memorized by students and applied exactly as written by anyone wishing to understand or “do” science. Logical rules are especially pleasing to science philosophers and teachers, and represent a solid conceptual way to think about science. However, real scientific research uses a diversity of approaches, so these rules are not always rigorously applied. Independent of approach, certain basic principles and practices are nearly always followed in performing successful science. Here we list a sequence of thought and action that is very useful, if not essential, in practically any meaningful scientific investigation. Preliminary: Every substance and every event which relates in any way to a scientific study can be explained, at least in principle, by knowable laws of nature. Most of us accept this notion without question, but it is surprising how often it is ignored in practice.
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This note was uploaded on 07/18/2011 for the course BIO 206L taught by Professor Unknown during the Summer '08 term at University of Texas.

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Ex01_116 - Exercise 1 Safe Laboratory Practice Basic...

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