CHAPTER 12

CHAPTER 12 - Important Read Before Using Slides in Class...

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Important – Read Before Using Slides in Class Instructor: This PowerPoint presentation contains photos and figures from the text, as well as selected animations and videos. For animations and videos to run properly, we recommend that you run this PowerPoint presentation from the PowerLecture disc inserted in your computer. To run the animations on these slides please click on the icon on each still. If you prefer to customize the presentation or run it without the PowerLecture disc inserted, the animations and videos will only run properly if you also copy the associated animation and video files for each chapter onto your computer. Follow these steps: 1. Go to the disc drive directory containing the PowerLecture disc, and then to the “Media” folder, and then to the “PowerPoint_Lectures” folder. 2. In the “PowerPoint_Lectures” folder, copy the entire chapter folder to your computer. Chapter folders are named “chapter1”, “chapter2”, etc. Each chapter folder contains the PowerPoint Lecture file as well as the animation and video files. For assistance with copying the slide and video files, please visit our Technical Support at www.cengage.com/support or call (800) 423-0563. Thank you.
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2 12 Gases and Kinetic Molecular Theory
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3 CHAPTER GOALS 1. Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases 2. Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases 3. Pressure 4. Boyle’s Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship 5. Charles’ Law: The Volume-Temperature Relationship; The Absolute Temperature Scale 6. Standard Temperature and Pressure 7. The Combined Gas Law Equation 8. Avogadro’s Law and the Standard Molar Volume
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4 CHAPTER GOALS 1. Summary of Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation 2. Determination of Molecular Weights and Molecular Formulas of Gaseous Substances 3. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 4. Mass-Volume Relationships in Reactions Involving Gases 5. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory 6. Diffusion and Effusion of Gases 7. Real Gases: Deviations from Ideality
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5 Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases The density of gases is much less than that of solids or liquids. Densities (g/mL) Solid Liquid Gas H 2 O 0.917 0.998 0.000588 CCl 4 1.70 1.59 0.00503  Gas molecules must be very far apart compared to  liquids and solids.
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6 Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases Gas % by Volume N 2 78.09 O 2 20.94 Ar 0.93 CO 2 0.03 He, Ne, Kr, Xe 0.002 CH 4 0.00015 H 2 0.00005 Composition of Dry Air
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7 Pressure Pressure is force per unit area. lb/in 2 N/m 2 Gas pressure as most people think of it.
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8 Pressure Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer. Definitions of standard pressure 76 cm Hg 760 mm Hg 760 torr 1 atmosphere 101.3 kPa Hg density = 13.6 g/mL
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9 Boyle’s Law: The Volume-Pressure Relationship V 1/P or V= k (1/P) or PV = k P 1 V 1 = k 1 for one sample of a gas. P
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CHAPTER 12 - Important Read Before Using Slides in Class...

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