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CONCEPT_REVIEW_1

CONCEPT_REVIEW_1 - www.TutoringZone.com CHEM2211 Organic...

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www.TutoringZone.com CHEM2211 – Organic Chemistry I Concept Review 1 Chapters 1-3 Spring 2010 [email protected] Announcements Welcome to Tutoring Zone! (if you’re new) Bathrooms and water fountains are just outside along the corridor. Please, silence your cell phone. The concept review sessions will run about 3 hours. Please make sure that you are on the email list! Just go to www.tutoringzone.com and click on “subscribe to class emails” Practice problems are located on the TutoringZone website. Click on the 2210 link. Halfway down the page you will see a section titled answers and supplements. Password for practice problems is “ochemrocks” Please, email us with any questions. How do I succeed in organic? 1. Go to class!!! 2. Come to reviews!! 3. Do the practice problems, without looking ahead at the solutions manual!
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TUTORING ZONE [email protected] CHEM2211 Conccept Review 1: Chapters 1-3 2 References: Wade, Organic Chemistry (6 th ); Anslyn/Dougherty, Modern Physical Organic Chemistry ; Brown et al, Organic Chemistry (5 th ); McMurry, Organic Chemistry (7 th ) Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding What is organic chemistry ? It is the study of the compounds comprised mainly or entirely of carbon (& hydrogen, of course!) Other common elements include oxygen & nitrogen (but we’ll also see sulfur, boron, phosphorus, and a few others) Electronic structure of atoms (this should be mainly review…) Shell A region of space around a nucleus that can be occupied by electrons (the principal quantum number) Quantization Having discrete values for energy and momentum Delocalization The spreading of electron density over a larger volume of space Orbital A region of space that can hold two electrons Orthogonal Having no net overlap due to 90 ° angles between orbitals (think of p x , p y , p z )
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TUTORING ZONE [email protected] CHEM2211 Conccept Review 1: Chapters 1-3 3 References: Wade, Organic Chemistry (6 th ); Anslyn/Dougherty, Modern Physical Organic Chemistry ; Brown et al, Organic Chemistry (5 th ); McMurry, Organic Chemistry (7 th ) Electronic configuration of atoms Ground-state electron configuration The lowest-energy electron configuration for an atom or molecule The lowest energy is the most stable! <1> Aufbau (“building-up”) principle Orbitals fill in order of increasing energy, from lowest to highest Lower = more stable <2> Pauli exclusion principle No more than two electrons may be present in an orbital If so, their spins must be paired (meaning they must be opposite) <3> Hund’s rule When orbitals of equal energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fill all of them completely, one electron is put in each before a second electron is added to any
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TUTORING ZONE [email protected] CHEM2211 Conccept Review 1: Chapters 1-3 4 References: Wade, Organic Chemistry (6 th ); Anslyn/Dougherty, Modern Physical Organic Chemistry ; Brown et al, Organic Chemistry (5 th ); McMurry, Organic Chemistry (7 th ) Lewis dot structures Valence electrons Electrons in the valence (outer-most) shell of an atom Valence shell
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