Ch09 chapter outline - CHAPTER 9 The New Nation Takes Form...

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1. What were sources of stability and change in the 1790s? 2. What economic changes affected America in the 1790s? 3. What was Alexander Hamilton’s three-part economic program? What parts were adopted and what parts failed, and why did the pro- gram engender controversy? 4. How did foreign and domestic conflict, includ- ing fighting in the Ohio Valley, the Napoleonic Wars’ influence on U.S. policy, and the Haitian Revolution, influence the course of the early Republic? 5. How did the Federalist and Republican parties develop, and in what ways did the 1796 elec- tion, the XYZ affair, and the Alien and Sedition Acts polarize the two? Annotated Chapter Outline I. The Search for Stability A. Washington Inaugurates the Government 1. The election of George Washington in February 1789 was quick work, the tally- ing of the unanimous votes by the elec- toral college a mere formality. 2. Once in the presidency, Washing- ton carefully calculated his moves, knowing that with every step he was setting a precedent, while a misstep could be dangerous for the fragile new government. 3. Washington’s genius in establishing the presidency lay in his capacity for implanting his own reputation for inte- grity into the office itself. 4. Washington chose talented and experi- enced men, regardless of their deep philosophical differences, to preside over the newly created departments of war, treasury, and state. 5. In addition, Washington picked Edmund Randolph for attorney general and des- ignated John Jay for chief justice of the Supreme Court. 6. Washington liked and trusted all these men, and by 1793, in his second term, he was meeting regularly with them, thereby establishing the precedent of a presidential cabinet. B. The Bill of Rights 1. An early order of business in the First Congress was the passage of a Bill of Rights. 2. James Madison pulled much of the word- ing of the rights directly from the lan- guage of various state constitutions with bills of rights. 3. In September 1789, Congress approved a set of twelve amendments and sent them to the states for approval; ten were even- tually ratified. CHAPTER 9 The New Nation Takes Form 1789–1800 Chapter Learning Objectives 71
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4. The process of state ratification took two years, but there was no serious doubt about the outcome. 5. Significantly, no one complained about the one striking omission in the Bill of Rights: the right to vote. 6. Only much later was voting seen as a fun- damental liberty requiring protection by constitutional amendment. C. The Republican Wife and Mother 1. The general exclusion of women from political activity did not mean they had no civic role or responsibility. 2. By the 1790s, essayists promoted the idea that chaste, virtuous women could pro- mote good morals more than any social institution could. 3. Republican ideals also cast motherhood in
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This note was uploaded on 07/18/2011 for the course HIST 2111 taught by Professor Winship during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Ch09 chapter outline - CHAPTER 9 The New Nation Takes Form...

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