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Unformatted text preview: MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING - Solutions Manual CHAPTER 5 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS ANALYSIS - II I. Questions 1. By looking at trends, an analyst hopes to get some idea of whether a situation is improving, remaining the same, or deteriorating. Such analyses can provide insight into what is likely to happen in the future. Rather than looking at trends, an analyst may compare one company to another or to industry averages using common-size financial statements. 2. Ratios highlight relationships, movements, and trends that are very difficult to perceive looking at the raw underlying data standing alone. Also, ratios make financial data easier to grasp by putting the data into perspective. As to the limitation in the use of ratios, refer to page 129. 3. Price-earnings ratios are determined by how investors see a firms future prospects. Current reported earnings are generally considered to be useful only so far as they can assist investors in judging what will happen in the future. For this reason, two firms might have the same current earnings, but one might have a much higher price-earnings ratio if investors view it to have superior future prospects. In some cases, firms with very small current earnings enjoy very high price-earnings ratios. This is simply because investors view these firms as having very favorable prospects for earnings in future years. By definition, a stock with current earnings of P4 and a price-earnings ratio of 20 would be selling for P80 per share. 4. A managers financing responsibilities relate to the acquisition of assets for use in his or her company. The acquisition of assets can be financed in a number of ways, including through issue of ordinary shares, through issue of preference shares, through issue of long-term debt, through leasing, etc. A managers operating responsibilities relate to how these assets are used once they have been acquired. The return on total assets ratio is designed to measure how well a manager is discharging his or her operating responsibilities. It does this by looking at a companys income before any consideration is given as to how the income will be distributed among capital resources, i.e., before interest deductions. 5-1 Chapter 5 Financial Statement Analysis II 5. Financial leverage, as the term is used in business practice, means obtaining funds from investment sources that require a fixed annual rate of return, in the hope of enhancing the well-being of the ordinary shareholders. If the assets in which these funds are invested earn at a rate greater that the return required by the suppliers of the funds, then leverage is positive in the sense that the excess accrues to the benefit of the ordinary shareholders. If the return on assets is less than the return required by the suppliers of the funds, then leverage is negative in the sense that part of the earnings from the assets provided by the ordinary shareholders will have to go to make up the deficiency....
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- Spring '11