Chapter12 - Chapter 12: Tidal Inlets Basic Morphology...

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1 Chapter 12: Tidal Inlets Basic Morphology Distribution Formation Sand Transport Influence on Barrier Island Inlet Relationships Tidal Inlets Inlet : conduit through which there is a direct exchange between ocean and bay water Tidal Inlet : the depth of the main channel is controlled/maintained by the oscillation of the tide through the conduit (tidal currents) Incident Wave Field Unstructured Inlet Structured Inlet Jetty Basic Morphology Flood Tidal Delta Ebb Tidal Delta Barrier island Inlet Throat Inlet Morphology : is predominantly controlled by waves and tides Stabilized Federal Inlet Width = 244 m Semidiurnal Tide, Mean Range = 0.88 m at entrance (ocean side) Spring Range = 1.1 m Prism = 3.29 x 10 7 m 3 Average Wave Climate; H = 1 m, T = 7 s, SE Ebb Shoal Complex Flood Shoal Bypass Bar Attachment Bar Main Channel Q net Basic Morphology Basic Flood Delta/Shoal Morphology 1 flood ramp :dominated by strong flooding currents, sand waves 2 flood channel :two shallow channels around the flood delta, sand waves 3 ebb shield :highest landward portion of the delta 4 ebb spit :sand scoured from shield by ebbing currents 5 spillover lobe :ebbing currents, breach the spit
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2 Basic Ebb Delta/Shoal Morphology Swash bars Channel margin linear bars 1 Main Channel :dominated by ebb currents 2 Terminal Lobe :sand deposited as currents exit channel, reworked by waves 3 Swash Platform :broad interior plateau 4 Marginal Bars :confine the ebb-jet/current 5 Swash Bars :wave generated bars on the swash platform 6 Flood Channels :shallow channels upon which flood tide enters Influence of Waves on Ebb-Shoal Morphology Additional Inlet Parameters Tidal Prism (P): volume of water flowing through the inlet during half of a tidal cycle Tidal Range (a0): height of the tidal wave, measured from the high tide crest to the low tide trough Cross-sectional Area (ac): surface area of a plane that bisects the throat (perpendicular to the inlet axis or channel) Inlet Distribution Geology is conducive to inlet formation Depositional coasts Abundant sediment supply Broad flat shelf Greater tidal forcing Lower wave energy Why Abundant on Passive Margins? Why Abundant on Passive Margins?
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3 Nauset Spit, Cape Cod (January, 1987) Tidal Inlet Formation Barrier Island Breaching Historical Development of Nauset Spit, Cape Cod Tidal Inlet Formation Barrier Island Breaching Shinnecock Inlet, 1938 Tidal Inlet Formation Barrier Island Breaching Pikes Inlet, 1992
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4 Tidal Inlet Formation Barrier Island Breaching Mecox Pond, NY 1998 Stone Lagoon, Humboldt, CA Buzzards Bay, MA
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This note was uploaded on 07/18/2011 for the course EARTH SCIE 334 taught by Professor Buonaiuto during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Hunter.

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Chapter12 - Chapter 12: Tidal Inlets Basic Morphology...

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