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chapt07gh - Chapter 7 Ocean Chemistry About solutions and...

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1 1 Chapter 7 Ocean Chemistry Ocean Chemistry About solutions and mixtures A solution is made of two components, with uniform (meaning ‘the same everywhere’) molecular properties: The solvent, which is usually a liquid, and is the more abundant component. The solute, often a solid or gas, is the less abundant component. A mixture is different from a solution. In a mixture the components retain separate identities, so it is NOT uniform throughout . 2 Water is a powerful solvent and we have it everywhere – the hydrological cycle 3 Ocean Salinity Salinity is the total quantity of dissolved inorganic solids in water. 3.5% salt on average measured in g/kg (ppt = parts per thousand) Ocean salinities vary in space Processes that affect salinity: evaporation, precipitation, runoff, freezing, and thawing And recall that: The heat capacity of water decreases with increasing salinity As salinity increases, freezing point decreases As salinity increases, evaporation slows (boiling point increases) 4 Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Cancer Equator Equator Tropic of Capricorn Tropic of Capricorn Salinity Salinity Temperature Temperature Latitude North South Ocean-Surface Conditions Depend on Latitude, Temperature, and Salinity 5 Mid Ocean Average Surface Salinity 6 Surface Salinity Northern Hemisphere Summer High = high evaporation Low = coastal regions and high precipitation regions
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