chapter7gh - Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere...

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1 Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere Highly integrated wind system Main Circulation Currents: series of deep rivers of air encircling the planet Various perturbations or vortices (hurricanes, tornados, cyclones) Scales of Atmospheric Motion : - based on time and space -Macorscale : encompass global wind patterns (westerlies, trades) through hurricanes (hours on up) - Mesoscale : Tornados, thunder storms, local winds (minutes- hours) - Microscale : wind gusts, dust devils (seconds – minutes) Macorscale Planetary-scale: global winds stable for weeks to months Synoptic-scale: weather map scale migrating cyclones/anticyclones, hurricanes days-weeks, 100s – 1000s km Mesoscale : Small disturbances < 100 km, minutes-hours Travel embedded within the larger macroscale circulation ex. ((thunderstorm) hurricane) westerlies) Microscale : wind gusts, dust devils (seconds – minutes) Mesoscale Chinook Winds Katabatic Winds Country Breeze The Haboob All Winds: arise from pressure gradients resulting from unequal heating of the surface Local Winds : arise from local pressure gradients
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2 Mesoscale Sea Breeze: air over land expands as heated during day, develop L temperature can decrease 5-10 deg. C 30 – 60 miles inland Mesoscale Land Breeze: air over land cools quicker during the evening, develop H result in reverse circulation offshore wind Mesoscale Valley Breeze: Slopes warm faster than air at same elevation over the valley Flow from the valley to the mountains Most common in summer, intense heating Mesoscale Mountain Breeze: Slopes cool faster after sundown Flow from the mountains to the valley Most common in winter, radiation cooling Mesoscale Chinook Winds: Warm dry winds on the leeward slopes of mountains Adiabatic warming Eastward slopes of Rockies Santa-Ana Winds, Southern California Mesoscale Katabatic (Fall) Winds: Cold dense air over highland area Descends, displacing less dense air Attain velocities capable of destruction ex. Mistral (French Alps – Med. Sea) bora (Yugoslavia – Adriatic Sea) 320 km/hr
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This note was uploaded on 07/18/2011 for the course EARTH SCIE 130 taught by Professor Frankbuonaiuto during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Hunter.

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chapter7gh - Chapter 7: Circulation And The Atmosphere...

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