chapter14gh - Chapter 14: The Changing Climate Detecting...

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1 Chapter 14: The Changing Climate Detecting Climate Change Natural Causes of Climate Change Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change Possible Consequences of Global Warming NYC Climate •More than just ‘average weather’ •Sum of all statistical weather information describing a place or region Elements of WAC 1. Temperature of Air 2. Humidity of Air 3. Cloud Cover (type and amount) 4. Precipitation (type and amount) 5. Air Pressure 6. Wind Speed and Direction The Climate System Earth’s four spheres 1. Lithosphere 2. Atmosphere 3. Hydrosphere 4. Biosphere Climate Change? - Paleo studies show climate varies on every temporal scale -Human activities are changing climate - Recent data indicates climate is becoming more variable -modern record is ~200 years -satellites 1980s Measuring Climate Change - Seafloor sediments -Oxygen isotope ratios - Old Soils -Tree Rings: Dendrochronology -Historical documents Sea-Floor Sediments Organisms at the surface Balance between ocean surface waters and the atmosphere As climate changes so does the composition of the surface organisms Recorded in sediments as the organisms die
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Rates of Sedimentation • Ocean Basins: slow, pelagic sediments – 0.5 – 1.0 cm/ 1000 years – Average Accumulation 500 – 600 m – Thickness depends on age – Oldest sea floor is 200 million years Biogenous Siliceous (SiO 2 ) diatoms, radiolaria (photosynthetic) ocean is under-saturated dissolves quicker in warm water Diatoms = cool regions Radiolaria = warmer regions Biogenous Calcareous (CaCO 3 ) cocolithophorids, pteropods, foraminifera dominant pelagic sediment Lysocline = calcium carbonate dissolves CCD = dissolution equals accumulation 4500m Oxygen Isotope Analysis from Ice Cores Isotope = One of two or more atoms having the same atomic number (number of protons) but different mass numbers (protons + neutrons) 18 O 16 O ratios Water forms with either 16 O evaporates easier Oxygen Isotope Analysis from Ice Cores Precipitation & glacial ice are enriched in 16 O Oceans are enriched in 18 O Ocean 18 O ice ages 16
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This note was uploaded on 07/18/2011 for the course EARTH SCIE 130 taught by Professor Frankbuonaiuto during the Fall '09 term at CUNY Hunter.

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chapter14gh - Chapter 14: The Changing Climate Detecting...

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