HIST 2301 9.24.07 and 9.26.07

HIST 2301 9.24.07 and 9.26.07 - 9/24/2007 Lecture...

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9/24/2007 Lecture 7—Progressive Era Politics: The 1912 Election I. Significance of 1912 Election II. Theodore Roosevelt (TR) A. Trust Buster—Northern Securities B. Use of Federal Government—Incorporation C. Food and Drug Administration 1. Sinclair Lewis, The Jungle D. Environmentalist 1. National Forest Service—Gifford Pinchot III. William Howard Taft A. Background B. Departure from TR’s Policies IV. TR’s 3 rd Party Run A. Progressive (“Bull Mosse”) Party V. Woodrow Wilson A. Background as Academic B. Synthesis of TR and Taft C. Accomplishments -1912 Election had four high-profile candidates: Taft as the Republican, Wilson as the Democrat, Eugene Debs as the Socialist, and former Republican TR as the Progressive.
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-TR was the most famous politician living at the time. He was known for his overbearing appearance; he was larger than life. TR was known early on for his opposition to trusts. Trusts came to monopolize markets and led to price fixing as the competition was eliminated. TR was principally concerned with railroad trusts. -In 1902 the Union Pacific and the Northern Pacific, the two largest railroad companies, merged to create Northern Securities and soon bought out a number of smaller railroad companies. TR saw this as negating the principle of capitalism. Railroads were the main source of transportation in the U.S. at the time. TR sued Northern Securities under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. This case went to the Supreme Court, with the decision being that the Northern Securities trust should be broken up. In large part because of this case, TR became known as a trust buster. -TR really wanted to create a system where government could regulate big business. He wanted businesses to be required to apply for a charter to become a corporation. Businesses would be incorporated in order to be regulated. TR was a proponent of big government. He went after certain trusts that he considered to be detrimental to the economy. -The 1906 Hepburn Act allowed the government to regulate commerce between states. -TR was also concerned with worker safety. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was created under TR. The creation of the FDA was due primarily to the muckrakers who investigated working conditions. -Upton Sinclair wrote the novel The Jungle . This built on the work by the muckrakers. It detailed the atrocious conditions of producing food in the Chicago stockyards. The production of meat got readers’ attention. There were gruesome stories, including those
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of workers falling into the meat grinding pit, etc. After publication of The Jungle , the export of American beef to Europe declined by half. After the FDA creation in 1906, more inspectors were present in the stockyards. -TR was interested in the outdoors and his work led to the creation of the National Park
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HIST 2301 9.24.07 and 9.26.07 - 9/24/2007 Lecture...

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