HIST 2301 11.5.07 and 11.7.07

HIST 2301 11.5.07 and 11.7.07 - Lecture 16The Modern Civil...

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11/5/2007 Lecture 16—The Modern Civil Rights Movement I. The STRUGGLE for Civil Rights II. The Rise of Massive Resistance A. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) B. “Southern Manifesto” (1956) C. Little Rock (1957) III. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) A. Background of Rosa Parks B. Emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr. IV. Alabama, Front and Center (1963) A. George Wallace B. Birmingham 1. Eugene “Bull” Connor 2. “Project Confrontation” -The civil rights movement did not just happen. It occurred because stong personalities emerged and were determined to enact change. - Brown v. Board of Education was a lawsuit brought by the NAACP against the Topeka, Kansas school board. The NAACP claimed that the schools were separate but not equal. NAACP argued that separate would always be unequal. The black schools never had the amount of funding that the white schools enjoyed. The Supreme Court agreed that separate was always unequal. It declared that segregation should end and that going forward there would not be separate schools.
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-Who was going to enforce this new law? The states weren’t, so it was up to the federal government. President Eisenhower was reluctant to act, as he felt this change should not happen by force. The importance of an armed federal enforcement force, though, had been proved during Reconstruction. -The “Southern Manifesto” was created by southern members of Congress. It said that Brown was unconstitutional and that this issue should be determined by the states. -This issue came to a head in Little Rock, Arkansas when black students tried to integrate Central High School. Orval Faubus, governor of Arkansas, essentially said that he would stand in the school doorway to prevent the entry of these black students. He mobilized the state National Guard to ensure that the students would not be able to enter. About 300 Guard members were present to turn away the nine black students. This was an example of the mass resistance of the period. -This event made national and international headlines. This was a turning point as it blew the lid off the pressure that had been building since the Brown decision. This event also forced Eisenhower to take some sort of action. Eisenhower took control of the National Guard away from Faubus and integrated the school by force. This was not the end of mass resistance. The Klan reemerged in its 3 rd phase in response to this. The Klan said they were intently patriotic and they adopted Hitler’s Arian beliefs. -African Americans appealed to public opinion.
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This note was uploaded on 07/18/2011 for the course HIST 2301 taught by Professor Trobridge during the Fall '07 term at Texas Tech.

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HIST 2301 11.5.07 and 11.7.07 - Lecture 16The Modern Civil...

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