Final Exam Notes (1)

Final Exam Notes (1) - Chapter Eleven: Social Psychology...

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Chapter Eleven: Social Psychology Social Psychology : study of how people think about, influence, and relate to other people _ Perceiving Others _ Personal Perception : process of forming impressions of others Influenced by: Physical appearance: more attractive = more favorable impression Judged more interesting, intelligent, socially skilled, etc. .. No actual difference between attractive people and others Also judged more competent and are more likely to have a job and make more money Stereotypes : widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of membership in a group Normal part of cognition allowing quick perception of a person Typically automatic but not always negative (most common: gender, ethnic, and occupation) Not very accurate: generalizing that entire group of people is the same (ignoring diversity within group) Stereotypes difficult to change due to it occurring automatically People overestimate confirming evidence (tend to notice stereotype more so you think it’s true) People distort memory/perceptions to better fit the stereotypes Prejudice : negative attitudes towards someone because of their membership to a particular group Discrimination : behaving differently towards members of a certain group Prejudice = negative thoughts, discrimination = negative actions Attributions Attributions : inferences that people draw about the causes of events and behavior Have strong need to understand causes of events Internal - External Dimension: Internal Attributions : explanations based on internal personal dispositions External Attributions : explanation based on external situational factors Stability Dimension: Unstable Cause : temporary and able to change Stable Cause : permanent and unable to change
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Attributions can be wrong Two Common Errors: Fundamental Attribution Error : tendency to make internal attributions when explaining other people’s behavior Self - Serving Bias : tendency to attribute our successes to internal causes, our failure to external causes _ Social Influences on Behavior _ Conformity : occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure Asch’s Experiment: People give obviously wrong answers to conform to group on 37% of trials Some never conformed, some always conformed Conformity increases as group size increases, to a point and conformity decreases if group not unanimous Why do we conform? Informational Social Influence : the influence others have on us because we want to be right Normative Social Influence : the influence others have on us because we want them to like us Social Norms : unwritten but understood rules of a culture about how to act in that society Learned through observation and maintained through operant conditioning Obedience : occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in position of authority Stanley Milgram: famous study on obedience 65% went all the way to 450 volts and no one stopped before 300 volts Indicates that regular people will obey authority even then asked to harm someone else
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Final Exam Notes (1) - Chapter Eleven: Social Psychology...

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