Chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Learning Learning-relatively...

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Chapter 5: Learning Learning-relatively permanent change in organism’s behavior due to experience Associative learning-learning that certain events go together Ex: teaching dog tricks, chores-allowance Conditioning-process of learning associations Three main types of learning: 1. Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov in 1903 Type of learning in which a neutral stimulus begins to produce a response after being paired repeatedly with a different stimulus Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): un-learned stimulus-something that naturally/automatically triggers a response o Pavlov-meat powder that automatically makes dog drool Unconditioned response (UCR): un-learned, naturally occurring response to an UCS o Pavlov-salivating after meat powder Conditioned stimulus (CS): previously neutral stimulus that after being paired with an UCS begins to trigger a response o Pavlov-bell makes dog drool Conditioned response (CR): learned response to a previously neutral CS o Pavlov-salivating after bell UCR and CR are often same behavior; just caused by different stimuli Process of Classical Conditioning Original UCS and UCR are paired together naturally o Meat powder=salivating The CS cause no response o Bell=nothing During conditioning, UCS and CS are presented together leading to UCR o Bell then meat powder=salivating Eventually, the CS can produce a CR all by itself o Bell=salivating Acquisition: the initial stage of learning, when response established and strengthened o When CS comes to cause CR to happen o Pavlov: when dog began salivating to bell Extinction: diminished of a conditioned response (CR) o Stop pairing UCS with CS and eventually CS stops causing CR o Pavlov’s dogs stop salivating to bell after it isn’t paired with meat for awhile Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response o Stop pairing UCS with CS and eventually extinction occurs o Give a break from procedure o Come back and find CS causes CR again Generalization: tendency for stimuli similar to CS to cause the CR o Pavlov: dogs salivate to sounds that are similar to bell o Can be adaptive because similar stimuli may produce similar consequences Discrimination: learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli o Pavlov: taught dogs only to salivate to a certain tone o Can be adaptive because slightly different stimuli can produce very different consequences Applying Classical Conditioning to Everyday Life Phobias: some phobias may be due to learned association between object and fear o Dr. Watson and Little Albert (made Little Albert afraid of soft white things)
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Taste Aversion: developing aversion to certain tastes when you become ill shortly after experiencing that taste o Unlike other forms of classical conditioning, CS can occur a long time after UCS 2. Operant conditioning Type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or weakened if followed by punishment
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This note was uploaded on 07/20/2011 for the course PSYC 86-407 taught by Professor Vandellen during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5: Learning Learning-relatively...

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