Module six[1] - Intergovernmental organizations(IGOs and Nongovernmental Organizations(NGOs International law is also important in international

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Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) International law is also important in international politics.
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One ways states arrange themselves for purposes of promoting cooperative and collaborative practices in world politics, is the creation of international organizations. The charters of many International Organizations (IOs), such as the United Nations their rules, agreements, and resolutions constitute many of the bylaws of everyday international interaction.
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IOs help in coordinating states’ compliance, in organizing states around their common interests, and in pointing out the benefits of cooperation. Large regional organizations such as the EU have worked extensively to promote economic cooperation. Realists usually see international organizations as of little importance, the same way they view international law. They obviously exist and states conduct much of their business in forums provided by such organizations.
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IOs can be divided into two broad categories, intergovernmental organizations and nongovernmental organizations. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) are associations of sovereign states that are established through formal agreements. Include the United Nations, NATO, European Union. Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) are groups of institutions and individuals established through more informal means. Greenpeace, Amnesty International.
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Even though NGOs do not include states in their membership, and so lie outside the structure of traditional international politics, many have exerted a significant impact on world affairs. Groups such as Amnesty International have influenced governments’ policies through public pressure and lobbying whereas organizations like Doctors without borders have acted directly to provide humanitarian relief.
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For liberals, IGOs enable states to overcome the information deficiencies, -they reduce transaction costs of negotiating, researching, gathering information, and complying with agreements, -they make commitments more credible, -they establish focal points for coordination and, -they facilitate cooperation by overcoming the Prisoner’s Dilemma.
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Three theories on the formation of IOs 1) Federalism: Peace and the elimination of war can be achieved if states gave up their sovereignty and invested in the formation of a federal international organization. 2) Functionalism: IOs are created to solve specific economic problems. Through cooperation, economic disparities will be eliminated and war will be less likely.
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3) Collective Goods: IOs are formed to assist states to overcome the collective action problem or the tragedy of the commons.
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As an institution, the UN has three unique strengths: 1) It is near-global in membership; at its founding in 1945 it constituted 51 members, after decolonization and the collapse of Soviet Union its membership reached 185.
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This note was uploaded on 07/19/2011 for the course POLIT 1550 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Youngstown State University.

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Module six[1] - Intergovernmental organizations(IGOs and Nongovernmental Organizations(NGOs International law is also important in international

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