Module ten[1] - Epidemics, Environmental Security, and...

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Module Ten Epidemics, Environmental Security, and Human Rights
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Future security threats During the Cold War, security studies focused only on maintaining the military balance of power and as a result, security was measured in strictly military terms. As the Cold War declined, scholars were free to study different threats to national security. One of those security threats is disease or epidemics.
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The movement of peoples from the countryside to urban areas, from one urban area to another, and then across national boundaries spreads the disease rapidly to geographic places well beyond national borders. Disease tends to follow trade routes and in the past wiped out millions of people. For example, bubonic plague killed 25 million people in 1352. Malaria, polio, small pox, also killed millions and in developing nations they continue to kill millions. To demonstrate the relationship between security and disease, we will use Aids.
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AIDs Originally transmitted from animal to man in central Africa, by a pharmaceutical company, it then spread from individual to individual through the exchange of bodily fluids, and then was carried by those infected to others around the globe as people traveled between states, all along before any symptoms appeared. Aids has rapidly become a major health and humanitarian problem, with over 3 million deaths annually (22 million deaths in the past two decades) and over 42 million individuals living with the disease. Aids is an economic issue, disproportionately affecting those in their primary productive years, between 15 and 45. It harms economic development and the viability of the military as an institution is threatened.
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AIDs is also a social issue, as families are torn apart and children are orphaned and left to fend for themselves. Colin Powell called AIDs the “greatest weapon of mass destruction.” Sub-Sahara Africa has been the hardest hit region. Seventy percent of those who are afflicted with aids are in this region. The disease is killing some 2.4 million people a year there, and there are some 11 million aids orphans, some of whom are themselves infected with aids. Because of the poverty of many of the most infected countries, the delivery of aids prevention and treatment programs in Africa and elsewhere is still limited. This problem is worsened by the high cost of drugs. The result is that less than 4 percent of the people in poor countries who need the drug treatment were receiving it at the beginning of 2002.
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Many actors have responded to the AIDs problem: 1) When people are lucky to have a strong state, it has been most effective in responding to the threat. For example, Brazil, Uganda, and Botswana responded effectively with both
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This note was uploaded on 07/19/2011 for the course POLIT 1550 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Youngstown State University.

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Module ten[1] - Epidemics, Environmental Security, and...

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