chapter 24 - The Enlightenment The Scientific Revolution...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Enlightenment
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
The Scientific Revolution Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1574) uses mathematical calculations to revise the model of the universe from an earth-centered (geocentric) to a sun-centered (heliocentric) one Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) determines that the planets have elliptical orbits rather than circular Both challenge Aristotelian idea of the fixed universe and the Christian belief in the central place of the earth Galileo Galilei (1564-1462) further provokes the Church by demonstrating the existence of gravity, using a telescope to prove the heliocentric model, and publishing a tract critical of traditional astronomical theories
Background image of page 2
The Empirical Method Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) publishes his Novum Organum (New Method) in an effort to compel scientists to free themselves from erroneous thinking His method privileges empiricism, which uses direct observation of nature and experimentation to reach conclusions The empirical method also involves tabulation of facts and record keeping He determines the major blocks to free and objective inquiry, calling these “idols” that must be destroyed
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Unlike Bacon, French philosopher and mathematician Descartes follows the deductive process of reasoning because he feels that the senses are deceptive His Discourse on Method (1637) begins by calling all knowledge into question His first premise is that “Cogito, ergo sum,” I think therefore I am Descartes gives precedence to the rational faculties, effectively separating the body from the mind This compartmentalization of body and mind into two parts is referred to as Cartesian dualism
Background image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 15

chapter 24 - The Enlightenment The Scientific Revolution...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 5. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online