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Chap002 Solutions completions

Chap002 Solutions completions - Chapter 2 1 Liquidity...

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Chapter 2 1. Liquidity measures how quickly and easily an asset can be converted to cash without significant loss in value. It’s desirable for firms to have high liquidity so that they can more safely meet short-term creditor demands. However, liquidity also has an opportunity cost. Firms generally reap higher returns by investing in illiquid, productive assets. It’s up to the firm’s financial management staff to find a reasonable compromise between these opposing needs. 2. The recognition and matching principles in financial accounting call for revenues, and the costs associated with producing those revenues, to be “booked” when the revenue process is essentially complete, not necessarily when the cash is collected or bills are paid. Note that this way is not necessarily correct; it’s the way accountants have chosen to do it. 3. Historical costs can be objectively and precisely measured, whereas market values can be difficult to estimate, and different analysts would come up with different numbers. Thus, there is a tradeoff between relevance (market values) and objectivity (book values). 4. Depreciation is a non-cash deduction that reflects adjustments made in asset book values in accordance with the matching principle in financial accounting. Interest expense is a cash outlay, but it’s a financing cost, not an operating cost. 5. Market values can never be negative. Imagine a share of stock selling for –$20. This would mean that if you placed an order for 100 shares, you would get the stock along with a check for $2,000. How many shares do you want to buy? More generally, because of corporate and individual bankruptcy laws, net worth for a person or a corporation cannot be negative, implying that liabilities cannot exceed assets in market value. 6. For a successful company that is rapidly expanding, capital outlays would typically be large, possibly leading to negative cash flow from assets. In general, what matters is whether the money is spent wisely, not whether cash flow from assets is positive or negative. 7. It’s probably not a good sign for an established company, but it would be fairly ordinary for a start- up, so it depends. 8. For example, if a company were to become more efficient in inventory management, the amount of inventory needed would decline. The same might be true if it becomes better at collecting its receivables. In general, anything that leads to a decline in ending NWC relative to beginning NWC would have this effect. Negative net capital spending would mean more long-lived assets were liquidated than purchased. 9. If a company raises more money from selling stock than it pays in dividends in a particular period, its cash flow to stockholders will be negative. If a company borrows more than it pays in interest, its cash flow to creditors will be negative.
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