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Mgmt3614Wk3(1)Communications - Mgmt 3614 Interpersonal...

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Unformatted text preview: Mgmt 3614 Interpersonal Communication Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Communications Managers spend about 70% of their time on communications International? 7000 languages 20% Chinese, 45% English, Spanish, Russian, Hindi Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Communication - Defined Communication is the process by which information is exchanged between communicators with the goal of achieving mutual understanding Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB The Communication Process Sender Meaning Encode Channel Message Noise Feedback Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Receiver Decode Meaning Transactional Model of Transactional Communication Communication A’s Field of Experience Shared Field of Experience and Symbolic Interactions over Time Communicator A Noise Communicator B B’s Field of Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Experience Noise - Defined Noise is anything that interferes with the intended communication Three types of noise: Environmental Physiological Emotional Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Noise Arc of Distortion at A Wh A Sender s ate ic un mm co o sn e do t bu d ten t in Arc rtion to f dis o What A intends to communicate Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB B Receiver Sources of Distortion Barriers to Communication Poor relationships Lack of clarity Individual differences in encoding/decoding Gender Perception Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB …Sources of Distortion Barriers to Communication Culture Misinterpretation of nonverbal communication Defensiveness Lack of feedback and clarification Poor listening skills Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Meaning Lies in People not Meaning Words Words People are unique so they encode and decode messages differently Only 7% of meaning comes from words – 55% comes from facial expressions and posture and 38% from vocal intonation and inflection Words have different connotations for different groups Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Gender Differences in Gender Communication Communication Men Women Concern: connect Maintain relationships Seek and give confirmation and support Aim for consensus When arguing, ask more questions and agree more; challenge less Gender Role Stereotypes Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Concern: status Being one up/not one down Aim for dominance Gender Differences and Power Men and people of high status talk more than women and people of low status In formal meetings, men are more likely to: gain and keep the floor for more time, regardless of status interrupt others control the topic But some women in powerful positions redefine what women say also interrupt others Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Women Are More Likely To... Be interrupted when they speak Use qualifiers (maybe, perhaps, sort of) Use disclaimers (I’m not really sure…) Phrase orders politely Frame orders as questions Use intensifiers Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Cultural Communication Cultural Styles Styles Low versus high context Direct versus indirect Self­enhancement versus self­effacement Use of silence and nonverbal gestures Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Low Vs. High Context Low­Context Relies on explicit verbal messages Onus on sender to craft and transmit a clear message Found in individualistic cultures Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB High­Context Relies on information in the physical context or internalized in the person Onus on listener to “read” meaning into message Found in collectivist cultures Direct Vs. Indirect Direct Explicit messages Forthright tone of voice Indirect Implicit/camouflaged messages Verbal statements hide speaker’s meaning Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Self-enhancement Vs. Self-enhancement Self-effacement Self-effacement Self­enhancement Boast about accomplishments and abilities Self­effacement Emphasize humility Modest talk Verbal restraints Hesitations Self­deprecation Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Silence and Nonverbal Gesture Interpreted differently across cultures: Silence Respect Disapproval Harmony Lack of understanding Nonverbal gestures Body movements Facial expressions Tone of voice Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Response Styles Evaluative Interpretive Supportive Probing Understanding Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Defensive/Non-defensive Defensive/Non-defensive Communication Climates Communication Defensive Climates Evaluation Control Strategy Neutrality Superiority Certainty Supportive Climates Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Description Problem orientation Spontaneity Empathy Equality Provisionalism Assertiveness Defined The ability to communicate clearly and directly what you need or want Nonassertive----Assertive----Aggressive (No influence) (Positive (Negative influence) influence) Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB I-Statements Behavio r Effect Feeling Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB I-Statements When you come late to class, it disrupts what’s going on and we have to stop to orient you and figure out what group you should join – and that’s annoying Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Congruent Communication Thoughts Feelings Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Active Listening Being non­evaluative Paraphrasing Reflecting implications Reflecting underlying feelings Inviting further contributions Using nonverbal response Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB Communication Channels Rich communication (multiple channels): Verbal Visual Nonverbal Emotional e.g., face­to­face Lean communication (limited channels): Language alone e.g., e­mail, emoticons Dr. Asha Rao, CSUEB ...
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