Cell Structure & Function

Cell Structure & Function - Cell Structure and Function...

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Cell Structure and Function Lecture 2 Chapter 5
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The Basic Unit of Life Life requires a structural compartment separate from the external environment in which macromolecules can perform unique functions in a relatively constant internal environment These “living compartments” are cells
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Cell Theory All organisms are composed of cells Cells are the fundamental units of life All cells come from preexisting cells
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Multicellular Organisms Division of labor Cells Must stick together Cells must communicate with each other
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Cell Size Resolution Unaided eye: .2mm Light Microscopy: .2µm Electron Microscopy: .2nm
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Cell size is limited by surface area-to-volume ratio
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Two types of cells: prokaryotic and eukaryotic Eukaryotes Membrane-Nucleus Membrane-organelles Unicellular/Multicellular Larger Prokaryotes No nucleus No membrane bound organelles Unicellular Smaller
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Plasma Membrane Continuous Lipid bilayer Proteins
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Functions of the Plasma Membrane Acts as a selectively permeable barrier Is an interface for cells where information is received from adjacent cells and extracellular signals Allows cells to maintain a constant internal environment Has molecules that are responsible for binding and adhering to adjacent cells
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Prokaryotic Cells Have a plasma membrane Contain a region called the nucleoid where the DNA is concentrated The cytoplasm (the plasma- membrane enclosed region) consists of the nucleoid, ribosomes, and a liquid portion called the cytosol
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Prokaryotic Cells May have a cell wall just outside the plasma membrane May have another membrane outside the cell wall, a polysaccharide-rich phospholipid membrane May have a capsule – outermost slimy layer made of polysaccharides
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Prokaryotic Cells Some bacteria, including cyanobacteria, can carry on photosynthesis. The plasma membrane is infolded and has chlorophyll
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• May have flagella, locomotory structures shaped like a corkscrew
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This note was uploaded on 07/20/2011 for the course LIFE SCI 2 taught by Professor Esdin during the Summer '10 term at UCLA.

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Cell Structure & Function - Cell Structure and Function...

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