Physics Electircal Chapter 20 - PHY2049PhysicsII...

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PHY 2049 - Physics II Chapter 20: Electric Circuits Valm í n J. Miranda Polytechnic University Puerto Rico Orlando Campus
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20.1: Electromotive Force &  Current Our daily life depends on electric circuits. Within a battery, two terminals exist: Positive = less electrons than protons. Negative = more electrons than protons. The maximum potential difference between  terminals is the  electromotive force (emf) . The potential difference between terminals is  less than the maximum.
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20.1: Electromotive Force &  Current Example of  ξ  = 12 V in a car battery. The  electric current  is the flow of charge  caused by the electric field. The amount of charge per unit time can be  used to calculate current. Unit for current is an  ampere  (A). t q I =
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20.1: Electromotive Force &  Current Direct current (dc)  is produced by the  movement of charges in one direction. Alternating current (ac)  is produced by the  movement of charges changing direction. Although electrons move,  conventional  current  is used to describe circuits. Conventional current assumes the flow of  positive charges, producing the same effect. I  stands for this conventional current.
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20.2: Ohm’s Law Greater battery voltages lead to larger electric  currents. In the simplest case,  I   V . The electrical resistance opposes the flow of  current due to a voltage. The  resistance (R)  is the ratio of  V  to  I .
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