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Review Sheet 9- Overview of the Skeleton Classification and Structure of the

Review Sheet 9- Overview of the Skeleton Classification and Structure of the

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Unformatted text preview: REVIEW SHEET NAM E 8:30am Tues/Thurs LABTIME/DATEM EXERCISE Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Bone Markings 1. Match the terms in column B with the appropriate description in column A. Column A Column B l. sharp, slender process* a. condyle 2. small rounded projection* b. crest 3. narrow ridge of bone* c. epicondyle 4. large rounded projection* d. fissure 5. structure supported on neckf e. foramen 6. armlike projection+ f. fossa 7. rounded, articular projection: g. head 8. narrow openingi h. meatus 9. canal—like structurei i. process 10. round or oval opening through a bonei j. ramus ll. shallow depressioni k. sinus 12. air—filled cavity 1. spine 13. large, irregularly shaped projection* m. trochanter 14. raised area on or above a condyle’l‘ n. tubercle 15. projection or prominence o. tuberosity *a site of muscle attachment Ttakes part in joint formation +a passageway for nerves or blood vessels Classification of Bones 2. The four major anatomical classifications of bones are long, short, flat, and irregular. Which category has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume? 55 3. Place the name of each labeled bone in Figure 9.1, page 1 12, into the appropriate column of the chart here. —__m Gross Anatomy of the Typical Long Bone 4. Use the terms below to identify the structures marked by leader lines and braces in the diagrams (some terms are used more than once). Key: a. articular cartilage b. compact bone c. diaphysis d. endosteum epiphyseal line epiphysis medullary cavity nutrient artery periosteurn red marrow cavity trabeculae of spongy bone yellow marrow We M :-‘7.'".-‘-:-“ i (a) (C) 56 Review Sheet 9 5. Match the terms in question 4 with the information below. 1. contains spongy bone in adults — 5. scientific term for bone shaft 2. made of compact bone — 6. contains fat in adult bones 3. site of blood cell formation — 7. growth plate remnant _, _ 4. major submembranous site of osteoclasts — 8. major submembranous site of osteoblasts 6. What differences between compact and spongy bone can be seen with the naked eye? 7. What is the function of the periosteum? Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone 8. Trace the route taken by nutrients through a bone, starting with the periosteum and ending with an csteocyte in a lacuna. Periosteum —) —) —> —> osteocyte 9. Several descriptions of bone structure are given below. Identify the structure involved by choosing the appropriate term from the key and placing its letter in the blank. Then. on the photomicrograph of bone on the right (208x ), identify all structures named in the key and bracket an osteon. Key: a. canaliculi b. central canal c. concentric lamellae d. lacunae e. matrix 1. layers of bony matrix around a central canal 2. site of osteocytes 3. longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves 4. minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon 5. inorganic salts deposited in organic ground " " I " substance Review Sheet 9 57 Chemical Composition of Bone 10. What is the function of the organic matrix in bone? 11. Name the important organic bone components. 12. Calcium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts? 13. Baking removes from bone. Soaking bone in acid removes Ossification: Bone Formation and Growth in Length 14. Compare and contrast events occurring on the epiphyseal and diaphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate. Epiphyseal face: Diaphyseal face: Cartilages of the Skeleton 15. Using the key choices, identify each type of cartilage described (in terms of its body location or function) below. Key: a. elastic b. fibrocartilage c. hyaline 6. meniscus in a knee 'oint 1. supports the external ear J 7’. connects the ribs to the sternum 2. between the vertebrae 8. most effective at resisting 3. forms the walls of . compressron the voice box (larynx) 4- the epiglottis 9. most springy and flexible . . 10. most abundant 5. articular cartrlages 58 Review Sheet 9 ...
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