cmn+102+manual+spring+2011

cmn+102+manual+spring+2011 - CMN 102: Empirical Methods in...

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Unformatted text preview: CMN 102: Empirical Methods in Communication Spring Quarter 2011 Dr. Robert A. Bell Department of Communication University of California, Davis 2 Table of Contents Nature of Inquiry .............................................................................................................. 3 Causation ...................................................................................................................... 18 Ethics and Politics In Social Research .......................................................................... 27 Research Design ........................................................................................................... 28 Conceptualization, Operationalization, and Measurement ............................................ 40 Questionnaire Construction ........................................................................................... 90 Sampling ..................................................................................................................... 109 Experimental Methods ................................................................................................. 125 Survey Research ......................................................................................................... 150 Ethnography of Communication .................................................................................. 175 Content Analysis ......................................................................................................... 190 Evaluation Research/Quasi-Experimental Design ....................................................... 203 3 N ATURE OF I NQUIRY I. Why Do Research? A. Limitations of Common Sense. 1. Much of What We Know To Be True Isnt. 2. Individualistic Nature of Common Sense. B. How Real is Reality? 1. Experiential Reality: Knowledge Based on Direct Experience. 2. Agreement Reality: Knowledge Based On Social Consensus. a. Tradition. b. Authority. C. Errors and Biases In Casual Human Inquiry. 1. Inaccurate Observations. 2. Overgeneralization. (See handout on replication as a guard against overgeneralization, page 8). 3. Selective Observation: Ill See It When I Believe It. 4 4. Ex Post Facto Hypothesizing (Made-Up Information). 5. Illogical Reasoning. (See handout on page 9.) 6. Ego-Involvement in Understanding. 7. Premature Closure of Inquiry. 8. Mystification. II. Theory: The Foundation of Social Science. A. Definition: A theory is a conceptual representation or explanation of a phenomenon. 1. All Theories Are Abstractions . 2. Theories Are Inherently Partial . 3. Theories Are Constructions . B. Theory as Explanation of Regularities in Human Symbolic Behavior....
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cmn+102+manual+spring+2011 - CMN 102: Empirical Methods in...

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