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midterm1 - CMN 152 EXAM 1 REVIEW LIST THEORY Conceptual...

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CMN 152 EXAM 1 REVIEW LIST THEORY Conceptual world Construct -> Proposition -> Construct ----v---------------------------v----- v=operationalization Variable -> Hypothesis -> Variable Observational world Construct - Label for something that is not necessarily perceivable but is used in scientific inquiry. Conceptual definition - The process of verbally defining constructs with other constructs. Proposition - Statements of how constructs are specifically related to each other. Theory - A set of logically related propositions that provide explanations about a future outcome. Criteria of a productive/useful theory - Falsifiable: it can be demonstrated to be false. - Parsimonious: simple and to the point. - Internally Consistent - Specifies its relevant constructs and how they are measured. - Explains the data better than existing theories. - Agrees with existing theories. - Generates new insights. DEFINING PERSUASION Attitude (definition & qualities) : A psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity (or object) with some degree of favor or disfavor. Characteristics of the attitude construct Attitudes: are tendencies are evaluative are learned (generally) influence behavior: positive attitude towards something = more likely to support it Attitude objects are entities that elicit the evaluative responses Attitude-behavior relationship assumption: attiudes influence behavior; if you have a more positive attitude towards something you are more likely to support it Motivational system (Kelman’s processes) Target: the person being influenced Social Agent: the person doing the influencing Compliance: - Target accepts influence from a social agent in order to achieve a
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favorable reaction from the social agent. - Target learns to do or say the expected thing in special situations - Compliance is Public Behavior, Not Private Acceptance (externally motivated) Identification: Target adopts behavior from a social agent because this behavior is associated with a satisfying self-defining relationship with the social agent Public and private acceptance 2 forms of self-defining relationships Internalization Induced behavior is intrinsically rewarding Induced behavior is Public behavior & private acceptance Persuasion MEASURING ATTITUDES Measurement - Rules for assigning symbols to objects Levels of measurement - Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio Nominal - Categories: assigned based on presence in a category - Ex. male -> 50, female -> 27 (random numbers assigned to those in the category); religion, political party, birthplace -Meaningful operations: =, not = Ordinal - All properties of nominal PLUS meaningful rank order - Ex. letter grades - Distance between the numbers doesn’t matter - Meaningful operations: =, not =, <, > Interval - All properties of ordinal PLUS distances are equal and meaningful - Ex. IQ - Meaningful operations: =, not =, <, >, +, - Ratio - All properties of interval PLUS meaningful zero point - Neutral isn’t zero - Zero is indifference - Meaningful operations: =, not =, <, >, +, -, %, x/y Direct, quasi-direct, and indirect - Direct: explicitly asks for evaluation of attitude; what is you attitude?
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