R e n a l F i l t r a t i o n Summary: • The functions of the urinary system include (1) eliminating organic waste products; (2) regulating blood volume and pressure by adjusting the volume of water lost and releasing erythropoietin and renin; (3) regulating plasma concentrations of ions; (4) helping stabilize blood pH; (5) conserving nutrients; and (6) assisting the liver in detoxifying poisons and, during starvation, deaminating amino acids so that they can be catabolized by other tissues. • The urinary system includes the kidneys , the ureters , the urinary bladder , and the urethra . The kidneys produce urine , a fluid containing water, ions, and soluble compounds. During urination (micturition) urine is forced out of the body. • The left kidney extends superiorly slightly more than the right kidney. Both kidneys and the adrenal gland that overlies each are retroperitoneal. • The hilus , a medial indentation, provides entry for the renal artery and renal nerves and exit for the renal vein and the ureter. • The ureter communicates with the renal pelvis , a chamber that branches into two major calyces . Each major calyx is connected to four or five
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