R e n a l F i l t r a t i o nSummary:•The functions of the urinary systeminclude (1) eliminating organic waste products; (2) regulating blood volume and pressure by adjusting the volume of water lost and releasing erythropoietin and renin; (3) regulating plasma concentrations of ions; (4) helping stabilize blood pH; (5) conserving nutrients; and (6) assisting the liver in detoxifying poisons and, during starvation, deaminating amino acids so that they can be catabolized by other tissues. •The urinary system includes the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys produce urine, a fluid containing water, ions, and soluble compounds. During urination (micturition) urine is forced out of the body. •The left kidney extends superiorly slightly more than the right kidney. Both kidneys and the adrenal gland that overlies each are retroperitoneal. •The hilus, a medial indentation, provides entry for the renal artery and renal nerves and exit for the renal vein and the ureter. •The ureter communicates with the renal pelvis, a chamber that branches into two major calyces. Each major calyx is
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