Bio-Anthro TEST_II_Notes

Bio-Anthro TEST_II_Notes - 2/16 Bio Anth Evolutionary...

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Unformatted text preview: 2/16 Bio Anth Evolutionary History and Primate Evolutionary Trends Why Study Primates? We are primates We look like apes We act like apes Understanding primates helps us understand ourselves, both in our similarities to other primates, and our differences Geological history Earth is 4.6 billion years old First evidence of life is about 3.8 billion years old Pre-Archaean time o 4.6-3.8 bya Achaean Eon o 3.8-2.5 bya Proterozoic Eon o 2.5 bya 570 mya o First animal was like a jellyfish Phanerozoic Eon - 570mya present o Paleozoic Era 570-275 mya o Mesozoic Era 243-65 mya Age of dinosaurs evolution of dinosaurs, birds, mammals, modern plants. Dinosaurs kept mammals at bay The Chicxulub Impact of 65 mya, located off the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. Extinction of dinosaurs. The asteroid that hit was 10 miles across (6 km), causing a crater 110 miles wide. Moving speed was 6.5 miles/sec. Caused a dust layer to completely block the sun for 3 months. o Cenozoic Era 65mya present (Age of Mammals and Plants) Paleocene Epoch (65-53mya) Right after extinction of dinosaurs. Rapid evolution. Origin of most mammalian orders. Earliest primates. Eocene Epoch (53-37mya) Origin of primates that look like primates. Oligocene Epoch (37-22.5mya) Origin of higher primate groups. Miocene Epoch (22.5-5mya) Divergence of monkeys and apes. 67 species of apes then, only 5 now. Pliocene Epoch (5-1.8mya) Human and ape lineage diverge Pleistocene Epoch (1.8mya- 10000 ya) emergence of modern humans. Cave men Holocene Epoch (10000ya- present) History, agriculture, language, art Classification started with Linnaeus Taxonomy naming things Systematics study of classification in an evolutionary framework Modern systematists want the classification to reflect evolutionary history Systematists people who study relationships among life o Primitive characters shared through common ancestry. Does NOT mean inferior or lower. Just means its been around for a long time. Ex. Hair or fur on mammals o Derived characters modified from a common ancestor. Ex. Fingernails on chimps and humans Phylogeny the pattern of relationships Two ways to classify things in systematics o Gradistics based on similarity (tails, wings, etc.) o Cladistics based on shared derived characteristics (homology). More important and accurate. (Birds, dogs, bats) Primates are mammals Homeothermy o Warm blooded hair, very active, high metabolic rate (eat a lot) Heterodontism o Sophisticated teeth allow mammals to eat lots of different things More intelligent (than a lizard) o Large brain, social behavior Egg retention inside body (except platypuses and echidnas) o Take care of young, secrete milk Trends features that characterize most primates, but not necessarily all of them Five digits Flexible hands and feet (primitive retention)...
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Bio-Anthro TEST_II_Notes - 2/16 Bio Anth Evolutionary...

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