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Psyc._Chapter_7 - Chapter 7 Human Memory Human Memory Basic...

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Chapter 7: Human Memory Human Memory: Basic Questions How does information get into memory? Encoding - forming a memory code How is information maintained in memory? Storage saving coded memories over time. How is information pulled back out of memory? Retrieval - recovering information from memory codes. (know the order of the processes) Most research and knowledge in the area comes from the fields of Cognitive and Biological psychology information processing system - the way computers work cognitive psychology - basically the way a computer works Memories in humans are reconstructive (they change over time) Encoding: Getting Information Into Memory The role of attention Focusing awareness is what attention is all about. Selective attention - selection of stimuli that you are going to pay attention to (same as attention) Filtering : early or later? A person is only going to encode the thoughts that they are paying attention to. Everything else is being filtered. (a smelly person sitting beside you in a lecture) Can occur before or after you assign meaning to something. Attention has a HUGE part in encoding (if you don't pay attention, it won't be encoded) Interference is when new information interferes with old information causing one the forget the old information.
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Levels of Processing:Craik and Lockhart (1972) Incoming information processed at different levels Deeper processing = longer lasting memory codes Encoding levels : (mainly deals with reading) Structural = shallow (encoding the physical structure of words; shape, size, color) only remember about 15% Phonemic = intermediate (what words sound like; memorization without understanding; what they rhyme with) remember about 50% Semantic = deep (make an understanding of the words) remember about 80% The way or the depth in which something is processed determines its likelihood to be remembered Enriching Encoding: Improving Memory Elaboration - linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding (thinking of examples). Visual Imagery - creation of visual images to represent words to be remembered (using power-points and graphs).
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