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chapter2 - Click to edit Master title and Plate Tectonics...

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Click to edit Master title style 2 Plate Tectonics and Physical Hazards
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The Big Picture Pieces of Earth’s surface Move around Grind sideways Collide Sink into Earth’s hot interior Collisions create mountain ranges, cause tsunami Less directly, mountain ranges affect weather and climate
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Fig. 2-1, p. 15
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Earth Structure Layers of Earth based on rock composition: core, mantle, crust Layers of Earth based on rock rigidity or strength: Lithosphere is stiff, rigid outer rind of Earth, which makes up plates from 60 km (oceanic) to 200 km (continental) thick, including crust and denser underlying mantle Asthenosphere is inner, hotter, more easily deformed layer
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Fig. 2-2, p. 15
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Earth Structure Continental crust Silica-rich Low density 2.7 g/cm 3 30-50 km thick Stands higher than denser oceanic crust Oceanic crust Iron-, magnesium-rich, silica-poor Higher density 3.0 g/cm 3 7 km thick Floats lower than continental crust, on top of denser mantle
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Earth Structure Elevation difference between continental and oceanic crust explained by isostacy Floating solid object displaces liquid of same mass Crust (continental or oceanic) floats atop mantle (denser mantle slowly flows away to accommodate crust)
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Height of a Floating Mass Height to which floating block rises above fluid is proportional to the density of the floating block relative to the density of the fluid Fig. 2-BTN1, p. 16
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Earth Structure Boundary between crust and mantle identified as density difference: Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho) Boundary between lithosphere and asthenosphere has been identified as zone of lower velocity for seismic (earthquake) waves traveling through mantle: low-velocity zone (LVZ)
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Plate Movement Lithosphere is broken into about 12 large plates , most of which are combination of continental and oceanic areas, moving up to 11 cm/year
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Fig. 2-3, p. 17
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Plate Movement Plates move away from each other at divergent boundaries – usually mid-oceanic ridges
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