classnotes16 - Plant structure and function Basic plant...

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Plant structure and function: Basic plant anatomy [OVERHEAD, fig. 31.3, p. 624] : Roots: - anchor plant - absorbs minerals & water - stores foods - have root hairs that increase the surface area and allow water & mineral absorption. Shoots: - stems, leaves & reproductive parts - stems: above ground, support leaves & flowers - leaves: main site of photosynthesis - associated structures include: - nodes - point where leaves are attached to stem - internodes - areas between nodes - terminal bud - at tip of stem, has developing leaves, etc. - axillary buds - between the leaf & stem. Usually dormant, but can start to grow if influence of terminal bud wears off (terminal bud prevents axillary buds from growing). Roots & shoots can be highly modified by different plants [Fig. 31.4 p. 625] : - Carrots & sugar beets have an enormous root that stores energy. - strawberries have horizontal stems that run along the ground - potatoes have tubers, enlarged areas at the ends of roots where food is stored. Leaves can be highly modified as well. - have many different shapes - some are even modified as tendrils (see fig. 31.4C) Basic plant cells: Basic structures are familiar: nucleus, chloroplasts, vacuoles [Fig. 31.6A, p. 628] Plant cells come in three (five?) basic types [Figs. 31.6B - 31.6F, pp. 628 - 629]: - parenchyma - abundant, perform many different function: - food storage/photosynthesis/aerobic respiration & more
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- can differentiate into other types of cells (e.g. the types
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classnotes16 - Plant structure and function Basic plant...

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