Extracrednotes2 - >C=O compounds are inherent in their specific structures Look for the key features Does the alcohol C have an-H available to

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This handout summarizes some reactions that involve converting between compounds in different chapters (Ch 4-14). Most of these (but not all) are reversible. This is not intended to be complete, especially for details. It is an overview of some ideas, to help you organize. I encourage you to make yourself a version of this with structures. A. Alkenes and alcohols addition of water (“hydration”) (Ch 4) alkenes alcohols elimination of water (“dehydration”) (Ch 8) (Elimination with alcohols can also give an ether; not discussed in book.) B. Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions [O] [O] Ch 8 compounds Ch 10 compounds Ch 12 compounds [H] [H] alcohols, of aldehydes, carboxylic various degrees ketones acids The first oxidation (Ch 8 Ch 10) involves removing two H atoms. The second oxidation (Ch 10 Ch 12) involves adding an O atom. The reaction differences between the kinds of Ch 8 alcohols and between the Ch 10 carbonyl
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Unformatted text preview: (>C=O) compounds are inherent in their specific structures. Look for the key features: Does the alcohol C have an -H available to be removed? Does the carbonyl C have an -H available to oxidize to -OH? It is a good exercise to figure out the oxidation number for the C in the various compounds. Try the set of C 1 compounds: methane, methanol, methanal, methanoic acid, carbon dioxide. In these compounds H and O are “normal” (+1 and -2, respectively). (See Ch 12 quiz at web site.) C. Combining things with the -OH of carboxylic acids (and reverse) alcohols (Ch 8) esters (Ch 12) + carboxylic acids (Ch 12) → ← amines (Ch 14) amides (Ch 14) There are a variety of special situations here, but this summarizes the logic. (Simply mixing an amine and a carboxylic acid gives a salt; p 422.) x402\mcrxn 2/24/03...
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This note was uploaded on 07/21/2011 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Sawyers during the Spring '11 term at Virginia College.

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