1307%20Chapter%201%20Tro - CHEMISTRY 1307 General Chemistry...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEMISTRY 1307 General Chemistry I Today’s Agenda 1. Welcome/Introduction 2. Discussion of the Syllabus http://www.uhd.edu/ 3. Class Objectives/Goals http://www.uhd.edu/ 4. Chapter 1 Discussion 1 CHEMISTRY 1307 General Chemistry I Instructor: Dr. Byron K. Christmas Office: N-809 Phone: (713) 221-8169 Phone: E-Mail: [email protected] Office Hours: See Syllabus Text: Chemistry: A Molecular Approach – Nivaldo J. Tro Other Requirements: i>Clickers and MGC Other 2 CHEMISTRY 1307 Prerequisites: CHEM 1305 or High School Chemistry Co-requisite: Credit or Enrollment in MATH 1301 and CHEM 1107 On-Line Mastering General Chemistry Homework/Quizzes: Examinations: 3 Examinations & 1 Comprehensive Final Examination 3 CHEMISTRY 1307 EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE: 3 Examinations (Final Exam Replaces Lowest) 51% 4 MGC Quizzes (Lowest Quiz is Dropped!) 15% 15% 11 MGC Homework Assignments (Lowest 2 Scores Drop!) 9% 11 Lowest 9% 1 i>Clicker Participation 4% 4% 1 Final Examination (Standardized, Comprehensive!) 21% 4 CHEMISTRY 1307 i>Clicker Registration We will now do “Classroom Enrollment” for your i-Clicker! We When you see your name scrolling down, note the letter next to Your name and press that key on your remote. A second letter Should then appear by your name. Click on that letter to Confirm you registration! 5 CHEMISTRY 1307 i>Clicker Question # 1 The measurement, 0.0100 g has how many significant figures? A.5 B.4 C.3 D.2 E.1 6 Why Study Chemistry? 1. To better understand the world: what it is made of and how it works. 2. Because it is the most practical and relevant of the sciences - chemistry is the study of EVERYTHING! sciences EVERYTHING! 3. It is the “Central Science” - All other sciences 3. “Central intersect at and depend on chemistry. 4. It is essential to the national and local economies. 4. and (Houston is at the center of the world’s largest petrochemical complex) 7 Why Study Chemistry? 5. It is required for virtually every major involving 5. science, mathematics, or engineering. science, 6. An awareness of the principles of chemistry is essential to being an informed and responsible citizen in a highly Consumer technical society. 7. It is incredibly fascinating and a lot of fun! 8. And MANY MORE! 8. And 8 The Language of Chemistry 3 Alphabet - Chemical Symbols of the Elements (Memorize the first 103 names and symbols) first H Sc Zr Ta Xe Nd Np Lr 3 Words - Chemical Formulas of Compounds 3 3 Mg Re H2O HNO3 C12H22O11 NaCl NH4ClO4 Sentences - Chemical Equations 2 Na (s) + Cl2 (g) -----> 2 NaCl (s) + energy energy Paragraphs - Reaction Mechanisms (Dealt with in Chapter 13 in CHEM 1308) 3 Using the Language to Express Ideas Definitions, concepts, mathematical skills, etc. Master the Language and Master You Master the Subject! You 9 The Periodic Table of the Elements 10 The Periodic Table of the Elements Page 59 1 Million pounds of Molybdenite gave 1 gram in 1928! 11 Chapter 1 Matter, Measurement, & Problem Solving 12 CHEMISTRY: (Memorize this Definition!) CHEMISTRY: (Memorize Chemistry is the study of the properties, composition, Chemistry properties, and structure of matter, the physical and chemical and matter the physical chemical changes it undergoes, and the energy liberated or energy absorbed during those changes. Got your notebooks? Write this DOWN! MATTER: Matter is anything that occupies space and Matter has mass. has Examples: chairs gasoline clothes batteries batteries people the earth paint paper oxygen people paper water salt aluminum air rocks water aluminum air rocks 13 Let’s Think About Matter! What Are the States of Matter? B. Gases C. Liquids Temperature A. Plasma D. Solids Page 6 in Textbook 14 Atomic and Molecular Concepts Plasma Electrons Gas Atoms or Molecules Liquid Temperature Nuclei Atoms or Molecules Crystalline Solid 15 Classification of Matter Matter Substances Substances Elements Compounds Mixtures Homogeneous (Solutions) Heterogeneous Memorize 16 Atomic and Molecular Concepts Classification of Matter • Substance - A distinct type of matter. All distinct samples of a substance have the same properties. Elements and compounds are subElements and compounds are substances. • Mixture - A sample of matter consisting of sample two or more substances which are NOT substances which NOT chemically combined. 17 Page 7 in Textbook 18 Classification of Matter (Substances) Substances Substances 3 Element - A substance that cannot be broken down (decomposed) into simpler substances by chemical reactions. 3 Compound - A substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined in fixed ratios by mass. Water - H2O Carbon dioxide - CO2 CO Sodium Chloride - NaCl NaCl Sodium Oxide - Na2O Na Iron(II) sulfide – FeS FeS Iron(III) sulfide – Fe2S3 Fe 19 Classification of Matter (Mixtures) Mixtures 3 Homogeneous - A mixture having only one phase; it is uniform (the same) throughout and has the same properties throughout. These are called Solutions. 3 Heterogeneous - A mixture with more than one phase. It is non-uniform and does NOT have the NOT same properties throughout. 20 Classification of Matter Matter Substances Substances Elements Compounds Mixtures Homogeneous (Solutions) Heterogeneous Memorize 21 i>Clicker Question # 2: A homogeneous mixture is also known as A.An element A.A compound A.An atom A.A solution A.A molecule 22 i>Clicker Question # 3: An example of a pure substance is A.Milk A.Blood A.Helium A.Carbon dioxide A.Both C. and D. are correct! 23 Classification of Matter Matter Substances Substances Elements Compounds Mixtures Homogeneous (Solutions) Heterogeneous Memorize 24 i>Clicker Question # 4: Which of the following is correct for the material Which pictured? pictured? a gaseous pure substance 3 a liquid pure substance 3 a gaseous mixture 3 a solid mixture 3 none of the above 3 25 Matter and Change Physical Change - A change in which each substance involved in the change retains its original identity and no new elements or compounds are formed. H2O (l) H2O (g) Evaporating 26 Matter and Change Page 8 in Textbook Physical Changes 27 Matter and Change Page 9 in Textbook Physical Changes 28 Matter and Change Physical Changes Page 11 in Textbook i-Clicker Question # 5: Conceptual Connection Which one below represents H2O after vaporization? H2O (l) molecules in pan pan 29 Matter and Change 3 Chemical Change - A change in which one or more elements or compounds (substances) are formed. 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2O (l) “Reacting” AgNO3 (aq) + HCl (aq) HNO3 (aq) HNO AgCl (s) + AgCl 30 Matter and Change Page 9 in Textbook Chemical Change! 31 Matter and Change Page 10 in Textbook 32 Properties of Matter 3 Physical Properties - Properties that do NOT involve Physical NOT substances changing into other substances. substances Melting Point Boiling Point Temperature Density Mass Volume 3 Chemical Properties - Properties that involve Chemical substances changing into other substances. substances Chemical Reactivity Reduction Potential Flammability Oxidation Potential 33 Measurement 3 Chemistry is an Observational science. Chemistry science. 3 Chemistry is a Quantitative science. Chemistry Quantitative science. 3 Measurement - A quantitative quantitative observation. Page 21 in Textbook o 103.3 F 103.3 34 Measurement All measurements have three parts: 1. A value value 26.9762 g 2. Units 3. An Uncertainty An Examples: 33.2 mL 33.2 72.36 mm 426 kg 31 people 35 i>Clicker Question # 6: When reading a graduated cylinder, read the volume at When the bottom of the meniscus. the What volume of liquid is in the graduated cylinder? A. B. C. D. E. 4 mL mL 5 mL mL 4.5 mL 4.5 4.6 mL 4.6 4.57 mL 4.57 36 Measurement Systems of Units - Standards of Measurement Standards 1. The Need for Standards 2. The English System (What a pain!!!) (What 12 in/ft 12 16 fl.oz/pt 16 16 oz/lb 3 ft/yd 5280 ft/mi 5280 2 pts/qt 4 qt/gal qt/gal 2000 lb/ton 3. The Metric System - A decimal system decimal meter (m) liter (L) gram (g) - Length Volume Mass Mass 37 Measurement Metric Examples: 1 m = 1000 mm 1 mL = 0.001 L 1000 1 kg = 1000 g = 1 000 000 mg kg 10 cm = 0.01 m = 0.000 01 km 10 23 kL = 23 000 000 000 µ L 4. The SI System - Système International d’Unitès ystème A. A complete system of units adequate for A. complete the entire realm of physical science. the 38 SI System of Measurement Prefixes for the Metric and SI Systems Page 14 in Textbook! 39 SI System of Measurement Prefixes for the Metric and SI Systems Page 17 in Textbook! 40 SI System of Measurement Common Conversions for the Metric and SI Systems Page 18 in Textbook! 41 SI System of Measurement 5. Rules for Using the SI Systems 1. Use only singular form of units and do NOT use a period after the symbol for the unit. 2. Use a dot on the base line for the decimal point. 23.6 m not 23,6 m 23,6 3. Group digits in threes around the decimal point and do NOT use commas. 200 000.000 003 km 42 SI System of Measurement 4. Do NOT use spaces for four-digit measurements. 1645 mL 1645 or 0.2367 µ g 5. Do NOT use the degree sign (o) for temperature recorded for the Kelvin temperature scale. 78.6 K not 78.6 o K 43 Measurement Conversion Factors - A fraction whose Conversion fraction numerator and denominator contain the same numerator quantity expressed in different units. quantity different 1 mile = 5280 ft 1 mile = 5280 ft = 1 5280 ft 1 mile 1 cm = 0.01 m 1 cm = 0.01 m = 1 0.01 m 1 cm 1 in = 2.54 cm 2.54 cm = 1 in = 1 1 in 2.54 cm 44 Measurement 6. Uncertainty in Measurements Exact Measurements: Measured values determined Exact Measured by counting or when a value is defined. by counting Examples: 31 people 31 27 rocks 6 2.54 cm = 1 in 10 µ L = 1L The uncertainty in these measurements = 0 Non-exact Measurements: All other measurements. Non-exact All The last digit recorded is uncertain; it is estimated!! The uncertain it estimated!! Examples: 27.5 g 27.5 32.7 mm 12 467 km 2 1.156 x 10 mL 45 i>Clicker Question # 7: What is the temperature recorded on the thermometer? o A. 103.3 C 103.3 o B. 103.3 F 103.3 o 46 Accuracy, Precision, & Sensitivity Accuracy - The degree to which a measured Accuracy value agrees with the true or “accepted” value. Precision - The reproducibility of a measured Precision reproducibility value. Sensitivity - The “fineness” of a measured Sensitivity value; the number of significant figures it has. 23.5673 g is a more sensitive measurement than 23.57 g. sensitive 23.57 47 Accuracy vs. Precision Page 26 in Textbook! 48 i>Clicker Question # 8: A student measures the mass of a penny 4 times student and records the following data. What can be said about the data if the actual mass of the penny is 2.4987 g? The data is both accurate The and precise. and 3 The data is neither The accurate nor precise. accurate 3 The data is accurate, but The not precise. not 3 The data is not accurate, The but it is precise. but 3 Trial Number 1 Mass, g 2.5104 2 2.5106 3 2.5102 4 2.5109 49 Measurement Significant Figures: Each digit obtained as a result Significant Each of a measurement. This includes all of the certain of certain digits and the first uncertain digit. The number of digits digit. significant figures in a measurement is an indicator of the SENSITIVITY of the measurement. of SENSITIVITY of 1.5 How many significant figures are in the following: 65 mL 2 173.4 g 4 12.2 m 3 1 x 109 ns ns 1 50 Measurement The Problem with Zero: 207.1 mm 0.002 36 mm 260.1 mm 0.123 00 mm .123 00 2040.0 mm 3600 mm Rules for Significant Figures: All non-zero digits are significant. 25.79 km 27 mL 25.79 A zero between other significant figures is significant. 207.9 nm 100.7 mL 207.9 100.7 51 Measurement Initial zeros are NOT significant. 0.001 23 cm3 Final zeros after the decimal point ARE significant. 23.100 ps 23.100 Final zeros in a measurement with no decimal point may or may not be significant. 3200 cm (might have 2, 3, or 4 (might significant figures!!) significant Exact measurements have an infinite number of significant figures. (They are CERTAIN!!) CERTAIN!! 52 Measurement Significant Figures in Calculations: In a In measurement, the last significant figure is assumed to be uncertain. be uncertain The result of a calculation involving measured values can be no more certain than the least certain can certain measurement. The number of significant figures in a result depends on the number of significant figures in the measurement and on the mathematical operation being and on performed. 53 Measurement Significant Figures in Calculations: Addition and Subtraction - A sum or a difference of two or more measurements has the same number of decimal places as the measuredecimal ment with the least number of decimal places. least decimal 34.9 mL 35.2 mL - 0.34 mL = ____ mL 34.9 35.2 1.007 94 u + 1.007 94 u + 15.9994 u 18.0153 = ______ u u = atomic mass units atomic http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5UjwJ9PIUvE&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PNH7_nDE6SQ&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZuVPkBb-z2I&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZuVPkBb-z2I&feature=related 54 Measurement Multiplication and Division - A product or quotient of two or more measurements has the same number of significant figures as the measuresignificant ment with the least number of significant figures. least significant density = (9.5760 g)/(12.2 mL) mL) = _0.785 g/mL ____ g/mL Round-off Rules - For digits 0 - 4, do not round up. For digits 5 - 9, round up.Page 24 in text! 55 Measurement 1.6 Round-off the following to two decimal places: 23.044 39 g = 23.04 g 65.89 65.891 mL = _____ mL 30.11 45.106 ms = 45.11 ms 30.1149 kg = _____ kg _____ 37.995 ng = _____ ng 37.995 _38.00 ____ 6. Dimensional Analysis - An extremely useful tool 6. An to help you solve mathematical problems. It is to based on the fact that when doing calculations involving measured quantities, the units must be added, subtracted, divided, or multiplied just like the value of the measurements. the of 56 Dimensional Analysis 1.7 How many meters are in each of the following? 21 km 1023 570 µ m 1023 (21 km)(1 x 103 m) = 21 x 103 m = km 2.1 m 10 m x (1023 570 µ m)( 1 m ) = 1.023 570 (1 x 106 µ m) 57 Dimensional Analysis 1.8 How many mL are in 3.0 ft3? 1 ft = 12 in 1 in = 2.54 cm 3 1 cm = 1 mL = _________ mL 1.9 How many ns are in 23.8 s? (23.8 s)(109 ns) = 23.8 x 109 ns = 2.38 x 1010 ns 23.8 2.38 10 ns (1 s) 58 Properties of Matter 3 Extensive Properties - Properties that depend on the amount of matter present in a sample. amount Mass Volume Heat Capacity 3 Intensive Properties - Properties that do NOT depend on the amount of matter present in a sample. on Color Temperature Density Melting Point Specific Heat Boiling Point 59 Mass and Weight Mass: the measure of the quantity or amount of Mass: matter in an object. The mass of an object does not matter change as Its position changes. Mass is measured using a BALANCE. Mass BALANCE Weight: A measure of the gravitational attraction of Weight: measure the earth for an object. The weight of an object changes with its distance from the center of the earth. Weight is measured using SCALES. Weight SCALES 60 Sample Calculations Involving Masses 1.1 How many µ g are in 2.56 kg? 1.1 = ________ µ g 1.2 How many g are in 2.578 x 1012 ng? = ____ g ____ 61 Sample Calculations Involving Volumes 1.3 How many mL are in 3.456 L? = ____ mL ____ 1.4 How many µ L are in 23.7 cm3? 1.4 = _______ µ L 62 Density Density - The mass of a unit volume of a material. Density The density = mass/volume 1.5 What is the density of a cubic block of wood that is 1.5 2.4 cm on each side and has a mass of 9.57 g? volume = [2.4 cm x 2.4 cm x 2.4 cm] volume density = (9.57 g)/(____ cm3) cm = _____ g/cm3 = ____ g/mL ____ 3 63 i>Clicker Question # 9: Which of the following has the Which largest density? largest A. B. C. A material that has a material mass of 10.0 g and a volume of 2.00 L volume A material that has a material volume of 5.00 g and a volume of 10.0 cm3 volume A material that sinks in material ethanol but floats on water water 64 Temperature and Thermal Energy Temperature: A measure of the “hotness”and “coldTemperature: measure ness” of an object; a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules of the object. The higher the temperature, the more kinetic energy the atoms and/or molecules have. This is an INTENSIVE property. property. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1zOnyC4RgQ&feature=related Thermal Energy: Often called “heat”, it is the form Thermal “heat” of energy toward which all other forms tend to go. This This of is an EXTENSIVE property. EXTENSIVE property. 65 Sample Calculations Involving Temperatures 1.6 Convert 73.6oF to Celsius and Kelvin temperatures. C = (5/9)( F - 32) K = C + 273.15 273.15 Memorize oC = (5/9)(73.6oF - 32) = (5/9)(41.6) = 23.1oC 23.1 K = 23.1oC + 273.15 = 296.3 K 273.15 296.3 66 Temperature Scales Page 15 in Textbook 67 ...
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This note was uploaded on 07/22/2011 for the course CHEM 1307 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at University of Houston - Downtown.

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