Standards - B y Wilmer Ar ellano Refer ences I nt r oduct...

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By: Wilmer Arellano
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References Introduction Trade Impact of Standards Benefits introduced by the use of Standards Types of Standards Standardizing Bodies Standards Structure
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Excerpts from: Two lectures that were developed for the IEC by Donald E. Purcell, Chairman and CEO of the Center for Global Standards Analysis at the Catholic University of America. Tutorials found at: http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs/education/setf Role of standards. A guide for small and medium- sized enterprises UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION
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Is it a bird, is it a plane? There are a number of ways of looking at the WTO. It’s an organization for liberalizing trade. It’s a forum for governments to negotiate trade agreements. It’s a place for them to settle trade disputes. It operates a system of trade rules. (But it’s not Superman, just in case anyone thought it could solve — or cause — all the world’s problems!) http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fac t1_e.htm
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Most-favoured-nation (MFN): treating other people equally Under the WTO agreements, countries cannot normally discriminate between their trading partners. Grant someone a special favour (such as a lower customs duty rate for one of their products) and you have to do the same for all other WTO members.
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National treatment: Treating foreigners and locals equally Imported and locally-produced goods should be treated equally, at least after the foreign goods have entered the market. The same should apply to foreign and domestic services, and to foreign and local trademarks, copyrights and patents.
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Freer trade: gradually, through negotiation Lowering trade barriers is one of the most obvious means of encouraging trade. The barriers concerned include customs duties (or tariffs) and measures such as import bans or quotas that restrict quantities selectively.
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Predictability: through binding and transparency back to top Sometimes, promising not to raise a trade barrier can be as important as lowering one, because the promise gives businesses a clearer view of their future opportunities. With stability and predictability, investment is encouraged, jobs are created and consumers can fully enjoy the benefits of competition In the WTO, when countries agree to open their markets for goods or services, they “bind” their commitments. For goods, these bindings amount to ceilings on customs tariff rates.
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Technical regulations and product standards may vary from country to country. Having many different regulations and standards makes life difficult for producers and exporters. If regulations are set arbitrarily, they could be used as an excuse for protectionism.
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