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Formulas
Chapter Three: Probability
Randall Miller
1 
Page
•
Key Symbols
o
S
→
Sample Space
(collection of all sample points)
o
{ }
: 1, 2
A
→
Set of
sample points in event
A
o
( )
PA
→
Probability
of event
A
o
AB
∪→
Union
of events
A
and
B
(either
A
or
B
occur)
o
∩→
Intersection
of events
A
and
B
(both
A
and
B
occur)
o
c
A
→
Compliment
of
A
(event
A
does not occur)
o

→
Event
A
occurs,
given that
event
B
occurs
o
N
n
N
C
n
=
Number of
combinations
of
N
elements taken
n
at a time
o
!
N
→
N
factorial =
( )( ) ( )( )
1
2 ... 2 1
NN
N
−−
•
Formulas
Probability Rules for Sample Points
Let
p
1
represent the probability of sample
i
1.
All sample point probabilities
must
lie between 0 and 1 (i.e.,
01
i
p
≤≤
)
2.
The probabilities of all the sample points within a sample space
must
sum to 1
(i.e.,
1
1
n
i
i
p
=
=
∑
)
Rules of Complements
The sum of the probabilities of complementary events equals 1; that is,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
1
c
c
PA PA
+=
⇒=
−
Additive Rule of Probability
The probability of the union of events
A
and
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 Fall '08
 STAFF
 Statistics, Probability

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