gmat questions - GWD1Q41 Leaching,, ofminerals,, A...

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GWD1-Q41: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of mines, as a method of the extraction   of minerals, it was well established  as early as the eighteenth century, but until about 25 years ago  miners did not realize that bacteria take an active part in the process. A. as a method of the extraction of minerals, it was well established B. as a method of the extraction of minerals well established C. was a well-established method of mineral extraction D. was a well-established method of extracting mineral that was E. had been a method of mineral extraction, well established Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest. (A) extending (B) extends (C) extended (D) it extended (E) is extending Parallelism; Verb form Th e original sentence is correctly written. Th e giant fungus is described as an interwoven filigree spawned … some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres . Th e present participle extending parallels the past participle spawned . A Correct. Th is sentence has the participles spawned and extending in a correct parallel construction. Spawned refers to something that happened in the past, while extending refers to something that continues into the present. B Extends is a present tense verb, not the participle needed for parallel structure; the ostensible parallel between extends and the distant verb is is superficial and would result in an awkward and unclear sentence. C Extended looks parallel to spawned , but this phrase would mean that the fungus extended only in the past when the fungus
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clearly lives on in the present. D It extended is not parallel to spawned and indicates an event completed in the past. E Is extending is the progressive form of the present tense verb, not the participle required for parallelism. Th e correct answer is A. something singular - place prep2:16.     The single-family house constructed by the Yana, a Native American people who lived in what is now northern California, was conical in shape, its framework of poles overlaid with slabs of bark, either cedar or pine, and banked with dirt to a height of three to four feet.
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