zoology definition pt 1

zoology definition pt 1 - Final Exam First Section Terms...

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Final Exam – First Section Terms - Zygote – fertilized egg; union of egg and sperm to form a diploid cell - Development – morphological, biochemical, and physiological differentiation of an individual; production of diverse cell types, reproduction - Differentiation – generation of cellular diversity - Morphogenesis – creation of form and structure - Embryology – study of an embryo until time of parturition - Ontogeny – development of an individual from fertilization to death - Aristotle – “epigenesist”; all parts of the embryo arise in succession; - Oviparity – egg production - Viviparity – live birth - Ovovivparity – egg hatches inside body - Holoblatic – entire egg divides - Meroblastic – small portion of egg divides - Harvy – recognized that all animals come from eggs, ovo omnia - Parthenogenesis – there are no males in a population, but generations kept producing - Baer’s Law – more general features that are common to all the members of a group are in the embryo developed early than the more specialized features that distinguish the various members of the group o General features appear prior to specialized features o Less general characters develop from the more general until the most specialized appear o Embryos of a given species depart from the adult stage of lower animals o An early embryo of a higher animal is never like an early animal, only its embryo - Alternate hypothesis – important in today’s scientific world - Larval stages – can tell if two organisms are in the same family if their larvae are similar - Homologous structures – structures derived from a common ancestral structure (ex human arm, bat wing) - Analogous structures – structures perform a similar function but do not arise from a common ancestor (bird wing and bat wing) - Malformations – abnormalities by genetic events - Syndromes – when several abnormalities occur - Teratology – the study of exogenous agents (teratogens) that cause abnormalities (distruptions) - Thalidomide babies – disorder of phocomelia (absent limbs or appendages); Thalidomide given as a morning-sickness drug. Deformities were observed keyed to the stage of exposure – there are more severe cases as the days increase after last menstruation. These are temporal effects – it affects the thing at the time of development. - Isometric growth – all the parts of the embryo or organism grow at the same rate, shape is preserved - Allometric growth – cephalization, anterior structures of the embryo form earlier than posterior structures
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- Turing’s Reaction diffusion model – Two homogenously distributed solutions interact to produce patterns making ordered structures. The inhibitor (S) inhibits the production of the activator (P). BUT, the activator aids in the production of the activator but also produces more of the inhibitor. This aids in cell proliferation. (ex – activating and inhibiting tooth formation) - Gastrulation – cell movements, change in positions relative to one another, 3 germ layers form
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zoology definition pt 1 - Final Exam First Section Terms...

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