C.22.Lymphatic-Summ-10[1] - A&P II Lecture Chapter 22 Page...

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A&P II Lecture Instructor-Dr. Wylie Chapter 22 Lymphatic System Page 1 of 11 Lymphatic System Functions -return fluid from the interstitial areas to the blood to maintain blood volume. -to protect the body against pathogens and other foreign materials. Organization of the Lymphatic System Fluid, Vessels, Tissues/Organs, Cells 1. Lymph -tissue fluid that enters lymph capillaries -similar to plasma, but more WBC's & less protein - must be returned to circulation to maintain nl blood volume & BP. 2. Lymphatic Vessels/Lymphatics -begin in peripheral tissues end at connections to veins - walls are thinner than veins & have valves A. Lymphatic Capillaries -originate as blind pockets to collect tissue fluid & proteins -single layer of squamous epithelial cells/closed end tubes -form complex networks that closely parallel those of blood capillaries. -- different from blood capillaries -larger diameter, thinner walls, permits entry of proteins, viruses, bacteria B. Small Lymphatic Vessels -have valves C. Major Lymph Vessels -collecting vessels 1. Superficial Lymphatics - near superficial veins 2. Deep Lymphatics - larger; accompany deep arteries & veins -drain skeletal muscles, and organs D. Lymphatic Trunks - join either thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct 1. Thoracic Duct -the larger & longer collecting duct -receives lymph from lower limbs & abdomen and left upper side of body -empties into left subclavian vein
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A&P II Lecture Instructor-Dr. Wylie Chapter 22 Lymphatic System Page 2 of 11 Cisterna chyli- enlarged area of thoracic duct -receives lymph containing fats from the digestive organs --lymph here full of fats (milky) 2. Right Lymphatic Duct - receives lymph from upper right side of body -empties into right subclavian vein Lymph Flow -lymph is kept moving by constriction of lymph vessels skeletal muscle pump -prevents edema respiratory pump 3. Lymphoid Tissues/Organs -lymph nodes, nodules, thymus, spleen, bone marrow - here lymphocytes mature & proliferate Lymphoid Tissue -connective tissue dominated by lymphocytes Lymph Nodes -small oval or bean-shaped; encapsulated masses of lymphatic tissue -found in groups along the pathways of lymph vessels . -functions like a kitchen water filter -at least 99% antigens removed As lymph flows through lymph nodes; 1. foreign material is phagocytized by fixed macrophages & presented to lymphocyte. 2. lymphocytes are activated; plasma cells produce antibodies to foreign antigens. Major Lymph Nodes - are the cervical, axillary, & inguinal groups (Lymph Glands) -located where head and extremities are attached to trunk to -remove pathogens before lymph is returned to the blood. ***Lymphadenopathy -chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes Lymph Nodules -small unencapsulated masses of lymphatic tissue -found beneath the epithelium of all mucous membranes - destroys pathogens that penetrate these mucous membranes
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A&P II Lecture Instructor-Dr. Wylie Chapter 22 Lymphatic System Page 3 of 11 ++Remember - mucous membranes line tracts that have natural openings to the environment.
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