ch19_answer_key - Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Holes Human...

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Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 10 th ed. Chapter 19: Respiratory System Chapter 19: Respiratory System I. Introduction A. The respiratory system consists of passages that filter incoming air and transport it to the body, into the lungs, and to the many microscopic air sacs where gases are exchanged. B. Respiration is the entire process o exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells. C. Respiration consists of ventilation, external respiration, transport of gases be the blood between lungs and body cells, internal respiration, and cellular respiration. D. Ventilation is the movement of air in and out of the lungs. E. External respiration is the exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood F. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells. G. Cellular respiration is oxygen utilization and production of carbon dioxide in body cells. II. Why We Breathe A. Respiration enables cells to harness the energy held in chemical bonds of nutrient molecules. B. Without oxygen as a final electron acceptor, much energy remains locked in nutrients. C. A metabolic waste of respiration is carbon dioxide. D. Carbon dioxide, when it reacts with water, forms carbonic acid which contributes to the pH of blood. E. Too much carbon dioxide will lower blood pH. F. Cellular respiration and control of blood pH explain why we must obtain oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide.
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III. Organs of the Respiratory System A. Introduction 1. The upper respiratory tract includes nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx. 2. The lower respiratory tract includes larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs. B. Nose 1. The nose is supported internally by muscle, bone, and cartilage. 2. Nostrils are openings through which air can enter and leave the nasal cavity. 3. Internal hairs of nostrils prevent entry of large particles carried in air. C. Nasal Cavity 1. The nasal cavity is a hollow space behind the nose. 2. The nasal septum is a structure that divides the nasal cavity into left and right halves. 3. The nasal cavity is separated from the cranial cavity by the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone and from the oral cavity by by the hard palate. 4. Nasal conchae are located on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity and divide the nasal cavity into superior, inferior, and middle meatuses. 5. Nasal conchae function to support the mucous membranes that line the nasal cavity and to increase the surface area of the nasal cavity. 6. The lining of the upper portion of the nasal cavity contains olfactory receptors. 7. Most of the nasal cavity conducts air to and from the nasopharynx. 8. The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity contains pseudostratified ciliated epithelium that is rich in mucous-secreting goblet cells. 9.
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ch19_answer_key - Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Holes Human...

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